Applying makeup is a daily activity for millions of Americans. These products are often purchased without a second thought regarding their safety, and even those of us who do read through ingredient lists will often find no references to harmful chemicals on the labels of our cosmetic products. However, a new study has revealed that over 50% of sampled cosmetic products contained high levels of harmful PFAS ingredients. PFAS, per- or polyfluoroalkyl substances, are a harmful class of chemicals widely used in consumer and industrial products such as teflon, non-stick coatings, and water resistant packaging. However, these compounds have been linked to a host of adverse human health effects and may be toxic at extremely low doses.
A research team consisting of collaborators from the University of Notre Dame, Indiana University, and the University of Toronto cataloged the concentrations of PFAS chemicals in 231 cosmetic products from the United States and Canada. These products were divided into eight subcategories: face, concealer, lips, eyebrows, eyes, mascara, foundation, and miscellaneous. Samples from these products were screened via spectrometry, a method that uses light to analyze the chemical makeup of a material. Of all cosmetics tested, 52% contained fluorine, a marker for PFAS, above a threshold needed to be considered “high” fluorine concentration. In particular, the categories of face, lip, and mascara contained the largest proportion of products with high concentrations. For example, 82% of waterproof mascaras containing high levels.
While the most common route of PFAS exposure is ingestion, increasing evidence has shown that dermal absorption of this chemical via contact with skin may be dangerous too, particularly chemicals applied near the eyes. These chemicals have known links to multiple types of cancer, immune system disruption, and harm to developmental and reproductive systems. Of the products screened, only 8% listed PFAS as an ingredient despite the researchers’ findings. This is due to a lack of regulatory requirements; companies are not required to disclose all ingredients even if high levels are present. This leaves many consumers unknowingly exposed. For more information, visit EWG’s Skin Deep Cosmetic Database, which provides detailed information on potentially harmful chemicals that may be present in cosmetic products.
Heather Whitehead is a current graduate student at the University of Notre Dame in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry.
Managing Correspondent: Samantha Tracy
Journal Article:”Fluorinated Compounds in North American Cosmetics”
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