by Vivian Chou
figures by Daniel Utter

Donald Trump’s election as the 45th President of the United States has been marked by the brewing storms of racial conflicts. A rise in racial incidents ensued in the immediate aftermath of Trump’s victory in November 2016. Since the beginning of 2017, over 100 bomb threats have been made against Jewish community centers and schools. Trump’s travel ban, signed in late January 2017, initially affected about 90,000 people from seven Middle Eastern countries; 87,000 of those banned were Muslims. Minorities such as American Muslims and black Americans have expressed fears over racial relations under Trump. Undeniably, the topic of race—and racism—has gripped America and the world throughout.

Over the last decade, there have been hopes that the US has become a post-racial society, free of racial prejudice and discrimination. However, the most recent months indicate the contrary: race remains an incendiary issue. Race and racism are not new issues, but in today’s 21st century Trump-era, discussions about race are distinct from those of the past in that they possess an entirely new dimension: that of genetics and DNA.

Race in the new era of human genetics research

In 2003, scientists completed the Human Genome Project, making it finally possible to examine human ancestry with genetics. Scientists have since tackled topics such as human migrations out of Africa and around the world. And it’s not just scientists who are excited about human genetics: widely affordable at-home ancestry test kits are now readily available from companies like 23andMe, Family Tree DNA, and Ancestry. For $99—around the price of a romantic dinner or a pair of Nikes—a customer can receive an analysis from 23andMe indicating that they are, for instance, 18.0% Native American, 65.1% European and 6.2% African.

The soaring popularity of ancestry testing bespeaks a widespread perception that we can use these tests to dissect, delineate, and define our ancestral composition. Indeed, social media is teeming with blog posts, and even livestream videos, from excited customers bursting to broadcast their test results and their reactions. Ancestry test kits are the new “it” item—and with their success is the tacit admission of our belief that our DNA can sort us into categories like the “five races:” African, European, Asian, Oceania, and Native American (Figure 1A).

Figure 1. ‘Race’ cannot be biologically defined due to genetic variation among human individuals and populations. (A) The old concept of the “five races:” African, Asian, European, Native American, and Oceanian. According to this view, variation between the races is large, and thus, the each race is a separate category. Additionally, individual races are thought to have a relatively uniform genetic identity. (B) Actual genetic variation in humans. Human populations do roughly cluster into geographical regions. However, variation between different regions is small, thus blurring the lines between populations. Furthermore, variation within a single region is large, and there is no uniform identity.
Figure 1: ‘Race’ cannot be biologically defined due to genetic variation among human individuals and populations. (A) The old concept of the “five races:” African, Asian, European, Native American, and Oceanian. According to this view, variation between the races is large, and thus, the each race is a separate category. Additionally, individual races are thought to have a relatively uniform genetic identity. (B) Actual genetic variation in humans. Human populations do roughly cluster into geographical regions. However, variation between different regions is small, thus blurring the lines between populations. Furthermore, variation within a single region is large, and there is no uniform identity.

New findings in genetics tear down old ideas about race

Estimating our ancestral composition down to 0.1% seem to suggest that there are exact, categorical divisions between human populations. But reality is far less simple. Compared to the general public’s enthusiasm for ancestry testing, the reaction from scientists has been considerably more lukewarm. Research indicates that the concept of “five races” does, to an extent, describe the way human populations are distributed among the continents—but the lines between races are much more blurred than ancestry testing companies would have us believe (Figure 1B).

A landmark 2002 study by Stanford scientists examined the question of human diversity by looking at the distribution across seven major geographical regions of 4,000 alleles. Alleles are the different “flavors” of a gene. For instance, all humans have the same genes that code for hair: the different alleles are why hair comes in all types of colors and textures.

In the Stanford study, over 92% of alleles were found in two or more regions, and almost half of the alleles studied were present in all seven major geographical regions. The observation that the vast majority of the alleles were shared over multiple regions, or even throughout the entire world, points to the fundamental similarity of all people around the world—an idea that has been supported by many other studies (Figure 1B).

If separate racial or ethnic groups actually existed, we would expect to find “trademark” alleles and other genetic features that are characteristic of a single group but not present in any others. However, the 2002 Stanford study found that only 7.4% of over 4000 alleles were specific to one geographical region. Furthermore, even when region-specific alleles did appear, they only occurred in about 1% of the people from that region—hardly enough to be any kind of trademark. Thus, there is no evidence that the groups we commonly call “races” have distinct, unifying genetic identities. In fact, there is ample variation within races (Figure 1B).

Ultimately, there is so much ambiguity between the races, and so much variation within them, that two people of European descent may be more genetically similar to an Asian person than they are to each other (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Case study of genetic variation between three scientists. Left: Schematization of the genetic variation between Drs. James Watson, Craig Venter, and Kim Seong-jin. Colored bars represent genes; different colors represent different alleles, i.e. versions of genes. Some alleles are shared by all three of the men (represented by the dark brown allele that is shared by every person in this image). Besides the universal dark brown allele, Watson and Venter share one other allele (bright blue). However, both share two alleles with Kim (Watson shares red and orange with Kim, Venter shares green and magenta), in addition to the universal allele. Right: There is more similarity between the Kim and Watson and Kim and Venter, than there is between Watson and Venter.
Figure 2: Case study of genetic variation between three scientists. Left: Schematization of the genetic variation between Drs. James Watson, Craig Venter, and Kim Seong-jin. Colored bars represent genes; different colors represent different alleles, i.e. versions of genes. Some alleles are shared by all three of the men (represented by the dark brown allele that is shared by every person in this image). Besides the universal dark brown allele, Watson and Venter share one other allele (bright blue). However, both share two alleles with Kim (Watson shares red and orange with Kim, Venter shares green and magenta), in addition to the universal allele. Right: There is more similarity between the Kim and Watson and Kim and Venter, than there is between Watson and Venter.

Does “race” still mean something?

The divisions between races are doubtlessly blurred, but does this necessarily mean that race is a myth—a mere social construct and biologically meaningless? As with other race-related questions, the answer is multi-dimensional and may well depend on whom you ask.

In the biological and social sciences, the consensus is clear: race is a social construct, not a biological attribute. Today, scientists prefer to use the term “ancestry” to describe human diversity (Figure 3). “Ancestry” reflects the fact that human variations do have a connection to the geographical origins of our ancestors—with enough information about a person’s DNA, scientists can make a reasonable guess about their ancestry. However, unlike the term “race,” it focuses on understanding how a person’s history unfolded, not how they fit into one category and not another. In a clinical setting, for instance, scientists would say that diseases such as sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis are common in those of “sub-Saharan African” or “Northern European” descent, respectively, rather than in those who are “black” or “white”.

Figure 3. Race versus ancestry. (A) The classification of people into different races is typically based on observable physical features, with skin color being the most prominently used characteristic. Racial classifications also draw upon non-biological characteristics such as culture, language, history, religion, and socioeconomic status. Thus, “race” is a term that lacks clear definition. (B) In contrast to race, “ancestry” emphasizes the geographical origins of one’s ancestors (parents, grandparents, and beyond). Unlike “race,” the concept of “ancestry” does not focus on the static categorization of humans into groups, but rather on the process by which a person’s history unfolded.
Figure 3: Race versus ancestry. (A) The classification of people into different races is typically based on observable physical features, with skin color being the most prominently used characteristic. Racial classifications also draw upon non-biological characteristics such as culture, language, history, religion, and socioeconomic status. Thus, “race” is a term that lacks clear definition. (B) In contrast to race, “ancestry” emphasizes the geographical origins of one’s ancestors (parents, grandparents, and beyond). Unlike “race,” the concept of “ancestry” does not focus on the static categorization of humans into groups, but rather on the process by which a person’s history unfolded.

However, even if scientists agree that race is, at most, a social construct, any cursory search of the internet reveals that the broader public is not convinced of this. After all, if an Asian person looks so different from a European, how could they not be from distinct groups? Even if most scientists reject the concept of “race” as a biological concept, race exists, undeniably, as a social and political concept.

The popular classifications of race are based chiefly on skin color, with other relevant features including height, eyes, and hair. Though these physical differences may appear, on a superficial level, to be very dramatic, they are determined by only a minute portion of the genome: we as a species have been estimated to share 99.9% of our DNA with each other. The few differences that do exist reflect differences in environments and external factors, not core biology.

Importantly, the evolution of skin color occurred independently, and did not influence other traits such as mental abilities and behavior. In fact, science has yet to find evidence that there are genetic differences in intelligence  between populations. Ultimately, while there certainly are some biological differences between different populations, these differences are few and superficial. The traits that we do share are far more profound

Science and genetics: Instruments of modern racism

Despite the scientific consensus that humanity is more alike than unlike, the long history of racism is a somber reminder that throughout human history, a mere 0.1% of variation has been sufficient justification for committing all manner of discriminations and atrocities. The advances in human genetics and the evidence of negligible differences between races might be expected to halt racist arguments. But, in fact, genetics has been used to further racist and ethnocentric arguments—as in the case of the alt-right, which promotes far-right ideologies, including white nationalism and anti-Semitism.

Considered a fringe movement for years, the alt-right gained considerable attention and relevance during Trump’s presidential campaign. Indeed, Steve Bannon, the current senior counselor and chief strategist to President Trump and the former chief executive officer of Trump’s campaign, has notable ties to the alt-right. Once relegated to obscure internet forums, the alt-right’s newest pulpit is the White House.

Members of the alt-right are enthusiastic proponents of ancestry testing as a way to prove their “pure” white heritage (with Scandinavian and Germanic ancestry being among the most desirable) and to rule out undesired descent from any other groups (including, unsurprisingly, Africans and the Ashkenazi Jews, but even certain European groups, such as Italians and Armenians). The belief in white superiority, and the need to preserve it, drives the alt-right movement—and genetics is both the weapon and battle standard of this new, supposedly “scientific” racism.

Those who disagree with alt-right ideologies may assume that the alt-right is merely spewing ignorant nonsense. This is certainly true for some of the alt-right. What is perhaps a more difficult truth is that many of the alt-right do, in fact, understand biology and genetics to an impressive extent, even if this understanding is flawed.

For instance, alt-right proponents have stated, correctly, that many people with European and Asian descent have inherited 1-4% of their DNA from Neanderthals ancestors, and those of African descent do not have Neanderthal heritage. They are similarly correct that Neanderthals had larger skulls than humans. Based on these facts, some within the alt-right have claimed that Europeans and Asians have superior intelligence because they have inherited larger brains from their Neanderthal ancestors.

However, this claim ignores that while there is evidence for the effect of Neanderthal DNA on certain traits, there has been no evidence for its effect on intelligence. Furthermore, scientific research indicates that the Neanderthals were not necessarily more intelligent simply because they had larger skulls. Unsurprisingly, the alt-right tends cherry-pick the ideas that align with their preconceived notions of racial hierarchies, ignoring the broader context of the field of human genetics.

Fighting racism with understanding

Just as the alt-right is no longer an easily dismissed fringe group, their arguments have some factual basis, and cannot be swept aside as the babbling of the scientific illiterate. The alt-right is not clumsy in their use of science and genetics in their battle for their “ideals.” Those who oppose the alt-right, and other racist entities, must arm themselves with the same weapons: education, namely scientific and genetic literacy.

Mounting scientific evidence has shown that humans are fundamentally more similar than different from each other. Nonetheless, racism has persisted. Scientific findings are often ignored, or otherwise actively misinterpreted and misused to further racist agendas of extreme political groups. Opponents of these forces must, through their own education and awareness, combat these misleading interpretations and representations of scientific findings.

Today, the question of “race” is no longer merely a political and social issue: as science has rapidly advanced, it has become irrevocably intertwined. The genome contains powerful insights about our biology that could unite us as a species, but which could also be dangerous and divisive if used without understanding. As we look forward to 2017 and onwards, it becomes ever more important to understand what our DNA says about what it means to be human.

Vivian Chou is a Ph.D. candidate in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences program at Harvard Medical School.

For more information:

The Atlantic “Will the alt-right promote a new kind of racist genetics?” (December 2016)

Harvard Magazine “Race in a genetic world” (2008)

Livescience “Genetic ancestry tests mostly hype, scientists say” (2007)

Science “The science and business of genetic ancestry testing” (2007; original paper cited in the Livescience article above)

Nature Genetics “Implications of biogeography of human populations for ‘race’ and medicine” (November 2004)

522 thoughts on “How Science and Genetics are Reshaping the Race Debate of the 21st Century

  1. I totally agree with your premise about race. Scientist using the term ancestry instead of race; kudos to them, if only the general public would pick up on that. If the “out of Africa theory” which the evidence and research seems to support with a high level of confidence was communicated so the public better understood our ancestry and the road our species has traveled to get were we are today then maybe our view of race and the prejudices that ensue from the term “race” would be lessened considerably. Unfortunately to many of us have beliefs that are inconsistent with scientific theory and that only clouds our true understanding of ancestry and the journey our species took to populate the world.

    1. ” the “out of Africa theory” which the evidence and research seems to support with a high level of confidence was communicated so the public better understood our ancestry ” That silly OUT OF AFRICA theory is probably dead now, with new discoveries of more Ancient skulls from Asia

      1. No, it’ll take more than one discovery of a pre-human species to change the “silly” Out of Africa theory, for which all evidence points to.

        1. Yes, note (Piltdown Man), We got a hell of a chuckle out of that historic event when I was taking anthropology in about 1997. Concept is still valid today. I remember in archaeology class learning about what a thief one of the early anthropologist was in Arizona and New Mexico! Sometimes making things up to support his own theories also. I love science but human beings are still doing science. Consider also how two of the most highly recognized persons in their field of science can swear and be damage that the other person is full of beans! Don’t get me wrong, Science is good. At my age I realize one night must not become too full of one’s self.

        2. We could begin this discarding of the race concept by all activists (of any orientation) who insist of the continued use of this concept by stopping our conversations outside of the research environment. “Person of color” seems to be perhaps the most idiotic manifestation of this tendency. While many would applaud the discarding of the idea of race, you are still asked to declare a race for many purposes (job application, registering to vote, etc.). “The black community,” “white privilege,” “Native American culture” for further examples. All of these supposed discreet groups are heterogenous, and I wouldn’t mind chucking all of them. If you want to tell me about your Jewish ancestry, of which you are proud, I’ll listen. But that is the expression of a single human. I will not use this description to then conceptualize other people who are at least putative members of this same “group.”

      2. Exactly so what makes this true they said we all have a black gene now that dna is there and many European have tests that show not one bit not even 000.1 percent of the so called “eve gene” its all deception to take white peoples identity away /and act like all these countries,their accents,way of life didn’t take thousands of years to create as though everyone is the same its not unique an its only the people who feel worthless who want to mix or feel guilt that they shouldn’t who believe this bs

        1. The mere reference to “ black” gene highlights the hold the social construct of races of men has on so many. No such thing as “ black” genes. Just as there is no such things as “ middle class”, “ lower class” , and “ upper class” genes. ( note: members of societies with rigid class structures would probably disagree with me.
          The expression of alleles- such as brown eyes, brown skin, does not a separate race make.

          1. There is a complete confusion here about social science thinking (eg classes have some social mobility) and absolute real science.
            Take Gender difference Male and female (please keep it simple for today) Physical and Biological differences between them-the main one of course Women can have babies Men can’t.
            Why so- answer different genetic make up of genders in the first place.
            The same is true with ethnicity but much more subtly genetically but never the less still genetic.
            Skin Colour is a physical quantity and therefore genetically derived.
            There are some other subtle physical quantities take the BAME difference re severe Covid.
            Reason is the muscle structure is slightly different in different ethnicities and hence the respiratory muscles acting on the pulmonary pump have slightly different mechanics and inertia in different ethnicities and also different genders.
            Most efficient gender respiratory muscle type is Female compared to Male
            Ethnicity it is Chinese-Caucasian-Asian-Black.
            Think of sports This is general most Sprint champions are Black and Most Swimming Champions are Caucasian possibly Chinese .
            I hope nobody reading this will take it as Racist just real science.
            Racist is real prejudice or slight prejudice eg like the White police in South USA allowed somehow to get away with murder and often the Southern States allowing things like this to happen -the white major seems OK though.
            By the way intelligence is not genetic the most brilliant sccientific mathematical geniuses were some Black American Ladies who ensured USA astronauts landed on moon and returned safely in 1960s

          2. you are correct and evolution is still the dumbest thing human beings ever devised. The only Truth I know God of The Creator of Heavens and Earth tells us we are created in God’s image. Alot of people have already taken the mark of disobiedence aka mark of the beast. They act worse than animals because they have forfeited their freewill because they have chosen death over eternal life In and through High Priest King Lord Yeshua Saviour of the world. I believe wild animals have more since than anybody that believes in different races. God seperated us humans by language and not be skin color,hair,or by skeletal features. Being God has no respect of persons so why should he favor one skin color or skeletal features over another. there cut and dry simple.

          3. Your comment about “black” genes is interesting and you need to put this statement into some sort of context. The truth of the matter is that, apparently, according to science, there are genes that are linked to (or control!) the colour of skin. Genes such as SLC24A5 and MFSD12 . I have just started reading about this, and other topics, as I want to improve my own understanding of racism. I am a white male and resist any generic or specific attempt to portray me as a racist, So I am trying to understand why there is racism whether colour on colour, colour on white, white on colour (the most notorious) or white on white.

        2. White is not a gene, it’s a description. Call yourself what you want. It will never be biological tho

          1. I agree. Unlike biology, “race” is a cultural/outward thing. Whereas, “biology is not a race” (

        3. You’re exactly right. Remember: It’s ok to be white. Also: It’s ok to be in a white nation. Lastly: It’s ok to want to stay a white nation

          1. It’s truly not okay to want to stay a white nation. Your ignorance and refusal to grow your mindset is startling. You are commenting on an article written by scientists and backed up by fact and are still being blatantly racist. I am baffled that people who say the words “it’s okay to want to stay a white nation still exist”. It gives me little hope for the future of our nation. It truly isn’t meant to be a white nation where white man reigns supreme. We are a nation of immigrants and color and diversity. That’s what makes us special. That’s what made us the country where people felt anything was possible. They know they can come here and make it, because we are a country of opportunity. Just because you are a white male who is stuck in the past, but I’d just like to inform you that this nation was built by immigrants and people of color and this land belongs to them as much as it does you. You’re absolutely unbelievable. I am simply a high school freshman and I am beyond outraged by your comment. I just encourage you to stop for a second and review why you feel you’re so entitled to being a white supremacist. What makes you feel good about ostracizing people for something that doesn’t even exist? You sound ridiculous. If skin color reflected the DNA and genetics of people, the inside part, we would all have the same skin color. I hope for God’s sake you read what I am saying and actually consider it. You will sadly never be a fully functioning member of society if the one thing you believe is that people with pale skin are superior. I am in complete and utter shock and disbelief. I will say it again. We are not a white nation, nor is it okay for you to believe it is okay to want to stay a white nation. Anything about race and race itself that you are worried about is the result of the white man destroying entire societies and countries and villages and ravaging entire nations. If anyone is to blame for this notion of race it is people like you, yourself, sir.

          2. Agree, David. I would love for the US to be 100% white again. The open borders, and hordes of illegals entering our country has caused a disaster to which there is no fix. Not to mention the blacks, who pillage all the major cities and contribute nothing towards making America a great and safe country. Yes, give me a white nation.

          3. I have mostly Scottish and Irish ancestry, but I am ashamed to be linked with a notion that the United States of America was EVER a “White Nation.” Also, “people of color” should be a term that does NOT exclude northern European ancestry as they are also as colorful as the rest of the world. There isn’t an “us” and a “them.” There are ideologies and mindsets that should be opposed because they are destructive, but we are all on the same team. We are trying to make this world a better place. Let us not get stuck in name calling and labelling people groups as inferior or superior. Let us, instead, aim for high ideals under which all are respected and treated with the human rights that made the United States so beautiful in the first place.

          4. I hate to break it to you seeking a “white nation” on the North American continent, but your ancestry is in Europe. Those of indigenous ancestry in the US (“full blooded”, “half blooded”), is about 13%.

          5. And what makes you think you are white? white is the colour of snow or cotton wool. I have never seen a person with white skin before. All I see are people with “pig skin colour” referring to themselves as whites

          6. “It’s ok to be white. Also: It’s ok to be in a white nation. Lastly: It’s ok to want to stay a white nation”
            This is a textbook example of white supremacy and white nationalism. David appears to be a white supremacist, white nationalist.

          7. Yeah and ok to have stayed out of other nations that were not so called white where your kind stole lands and stayed behind till date,payback is coming

          8. It’s amazing how politics entered Harvard’s study. Science runs on money. Are outcomes of scientific studies now being dictated by politics?

          9. It’s ok to want to stay a child. Good luck with that.

            And gee, I wonder what is God’s opinion on “race purity” and how “superior” it is to be “pure”..?

            I would think the consequences of inbreeding vs. the benefits of “hybrid vigor” should give some indication.

            And America will NEVER be able to call itself a “white nation” as long as the stolen free labor of Africa Americans were what financed and enabled Industrial Revolutions and Empire-building of both US and Great Britain. And while the struggles of African Americans is what’s created-amendment by amendment-the “more perfect” first true democracy on the planet, out of the hypocrisy left by slave-dependant Founding Fathers.

          10. Remember, it’s ok to think the earth is flat as well. A 2018 YouGov poll found that between 1.28 and 2 percent of at least 8,000 people asked, think the earth is flat. Thinking the earth is flat doesn’t hurt or help anyone. Nothing is educationally gained from it, which makes me think ‘flat earth’ is just a vehicle to carry what a flerf’s real belief is: distrust of government. Having said that I think claiming the earth is flat, is the cornerstone belief for someone who really wishes to express how little they trust authority.

            I think David and people like him, are just using the social construct of race to express a different, underlying belief. Certainly something fear-based. For centuries humans have ‘made up’ answers to things not fully understood; flat earth belief was initially born this way. Once earth orbit and space travel objectively proved the shape of earth, it was on to other things not known-except for those few people who needed a really aggressive way of expressing their distrust of government and authority. If we can find out what David and people like him are afraid of, we might put the social construct of race out to the same pasture where the penguins guarding the ice wall reside.

          11. Totally agree. This social experiment of trying to mix cultures when we are too diverse to do so is idiotic. I do believe that since there are definite differences genetically between various “races”, that we are at the very least different subspecies.

          12. A white nation stolen from brown native Americans. See the insanity of your prejudicial thinking. Racism is as it is said,” out of the mouth the heart speaks” racism is at its core ignorance and narcissistic.

          13. Being “white” means having a genetic defect that causes albinism. If your skin does not tan, it means it does not produce melanin, which protects skin, hair and eyes. Lack of melanin production is caused by a genetic defect, a mutated OCA2 gene. We are meant to have melanin, those who don’t have it have something wrong with them. https:// medlineplus. gov/genetics/gene/tyr/

        4. First of all, if you know how dna works… the dna Im one human body could stretch back from here to the sun back and forth many times over. Humans who left Africa bred with others outside of Africa such as the Neanderthals. So of course genetics from Africa would be hard to detect from over thousands of years of evolution but it doesn’t mean it’s not there it’s just not expressed as much as more recent admixtures. Also mixing is more genetically sound and proper biologically speaking, it can breed out defects and diseases and also improves genetic fitness with more mutations to draw from. Without mixing … if you’re not from Prehistoric Africa, you wouldn’t exist…. Europe Asia the Pacific the Americas wouldn’t exist as they do now or even at all

          1. But mixing with different types who evolved in different environments can greatly change your children’s composition. Like brain size, IQ, impulsivity and likelyhood of committing violent crime.

          2. “Europe Asia the Pacific the Americas wouldn’t exist as they do now or even at all” Geographically speaking they haven’t changed at all. This is why geographical terminology best applies to geography and and should not be so heavily relied upon for a discriptor for race. Race moves location and changes with time.

          3. There was a time in my life that the study of DNA or genes was quite interesting. Your comments are based on observation and the studies of thousands before us. We seek answers to questions we are unlikely to ever know, but it keeps us from boredom. Do you have bias? I do to some extent. The majority of our opinions are theory, but leave room for expressions that differ from our own if we cannot prove differently.

          4. if you strech human dna you get 2meters, not 300.000.000.000 meters (distance back and forth to the sun)

        5. The number of zeros before the decimal point don’t matter.
          Also no such thing as the “black” gene.
          Arm yourself with intelligence. No one cares that much about the “white identity” or taking it away. If at all, in this world, it’s the other eay around.

          1. There is a set of “black genes” though. Just as all people who are not from Africa have Neanderthal admixture and Asians have Denisovan admixture, Africans have admixture from archaic hominids. Humans are remarkably genotypically and phenotypically different. Melanesian DNA is more than 10% from different animals (Neanderthal, Denisovan, Floriensis) compared to West African DNA (homo erectus and others).

          2. “Previous efforts simply assumed that Africans largely lacked Neanderthal DNA. To get more reliable numbers, Princeton University evolutionary biologist Joshua Akey compared the genome of a Neanderthal from Russia’s Altai region in Siberia, sequenced in 2013, to 2504 modern genomes uploaded to the 1000 Genomes Project, a catalog of genomes from around the world that includes five African subpopulations. The researchers then calculated the probability that each stretch of DNA was inherited from a Neanderthal ancestor.

            The researchers found that African individuals on average had significantly more Neanderthal DNA than previously thought—about 17 megabases (Mb) worth, or 0.3% of their genome. They also found signs that a handful of Neanderthal genes may have been selected for after they entered Africans’ genomes, including genes that boost immune function and protect against ultraviolet radiation.”
            “Akey’s study might help explain another “head scratcher,” says computer biologist Kelley Harris of the University of Washington, Seattle. Studies had suggested East Asians have 20% more Neanderthal DNA than Europeans, she notes. “Europe is where Neanderthal remains are found, so why wouldn’t Europeans have more Neanderthal ancestry than any other group?”

            By suggesting that Europeans introduced Neanderthal sequences into Africa, the new study points to an explanation: Researchers previously assumed that Neanderthal sequences shared by Europeans and Africans were modern and subtracted them out. After correcting for that bias, the new study found similar amounts of Neanderthal DNA in Europeans and Asians—51 and 55 Mb, respectively. It’s a “convincing and elegant” explanation, Harris says.”

          3. Are you being disingenuous? Your skin colour is determined by your genes. Or, perhaps you think we are painted white, yellow, brown or black while passing through the vagina? If so seemingly nearly all but albinos choose the same colour.

            ‘Ready madam, baby is about to come out, do you want white or yellow or brown or black?’
            ‘Now push, push, …….’
            ‘Nice job Doctor’
            Nurse swoons in secret admiration of the intelligent white doctor.
            ‘Yes matron, another great paint job I have to say.’

          4. “Also no such thing as the “black” gene.”
            How does make the FBI to identify African, Caucasian, Asian origin from collected DNA?

          5. Was this an article about Trump or race…. The wannabe authors own hate is obvious. Typical of garbage schools anyways.

        6. once you grow to speak 5 languages, read 4 of them, read and write 3 of them and be fluent in 2 of them (English being unfortunately or fortunately one of them), you will know that racism is just a pigment of the imagination (yes pigment and not figment).

          1. Excellent pun! colorism is what it is. Old whitey taught to fear darkskin humans. The evolutionist are a rank below light skin humans too. Then again the majority that believe all that caveman ungabunga stuff are light skin people. Right here in United States of America.

        7. What are you talking about? wow, pseudoscience. There is not ONE European that doesn’t have a minimal percentage of African, not one. That is why the Out of Africa can not be disproven up till today.
          Otherwise, it was easy to disprove it.

          1. If we’re all related, then why do you anti-whites hate White people so much? Why do you only have venom and ill-wishes for my kind? We’re definitely smarter than you think. We have seen all the terrible things you have done and how everything you say is an excuse to cause more trouble. Most of us want peaceful separation, but it’s not allowed by the nose tribe that runs everything (we all know who that is–the ones big on censorship).

            You only have hateful terms for White people yet nothing but approval for everyone else. You are all frauds and simpletons, and your kind will not rule forever. Stay perpetually mad that we exist and will continue to exist.

          2. That’s such a useless argument. Just because a European has a *slight* relation with someone of sub-saharan descent, that doesn’t mean they’re apart of the same genetic group. We all have a *slight* relation with literally every life form on this planet. Regardless, the fact of the matter is, 1000 genome project PCA groups various populations of humans into super populations based on genetic diversity between the groups. Of course there is some bleed over, but that doesn’t change the fact that there are absolutely distinct genetic groups of humans on earth. I don’t understand what the point of arguing against this is.

        8. Greetings: what about pheramonal DNA research from smelling people of different races in relation to the flight to fight instinct. What is the difference in sweat between the three main races? Is anyone doing research in sweat? How does the unconscious mind react to sweat in blind testing. Controlled test: have one asian, one white and one black person run on a treadmill long enough to sweat. Blindfold three people of the three different races. Hook them up to an electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram. And galvanic responce meter. The have them smell the sweat blindfolded not knowing the visual race of the person before them and see the results. Has anyone tried this. Let’s get a grant. Not a Carey grant or president grant either?

          1. scent is not racial, it’s ethnic, based on what a person eats. Just as deer avoid areas where carnivores urinate, based on what the carnivore has eaten (I.e., meat), uneducated humans consider scent difference to be based on “race” rather than on diet.

          2. Go into any football locker room where they’re all calling each other “brother” and they’ll tell you there’s no difference.

          1. Good luck (not) with that. You’ll need genetic modification to remove pigmentation from the human genome

        9. we are all dna mutts so reliance on skin color of accusing people of white supremacy is so childish that it is asisine.

          1. That in itself is racist We are a melting out of many cultures and races that what makes America so beautiful Stop the white supremacy talk it’s offensive and racist to Target and degrad a persons skin color is wrong and so regressive move on America is Great The Europeans The Asians The Blacks The Hispanics wake up stop the hate in the name of hate

        10. I’ve wondered many times about this topic. There are temples in India that they believe to be over 20000 years old. Predating the pyramids. I think the different races were seeded here from other galaxies. No prob. Just be kind. The master said it and it solves all human problems. Just be kind.

          1. We came here from the stars you say. Since the channel has Harvard in its title, I believe your comment would go straight to the “Not Relevant ” tray or get the proverbial boot in the direction of the Exit sign. Not relevant. Not provable. Not of this planet.

        11. Its not about your people identity its about biology and evidence. And evidence shows .every human in the world has atleast 1-4 % “black” sub saharan African genes.remember the terms white and black are social constructs

        12. African is original people made of star dust. White people are genetically modified people
          That’s why the sun the life giver kill white people with melonoma
          We are not the same! White have no history! You steal all of what you have from anceint kemet.
          And imposed your why of living on the tribes! Every you went you found black! You history in theis planet! You all are the devil. ThT stared the killing on the earth.

          1. All peoples/races/species evolved separately, with some common origins,… and apparently the origin of Homo genus is in Africa. But, out-of-Africa Homo species and intra-species evolution occurred also.

        13. Exactly, that tells you who are the real “racists”. Different races exist and they are all beautiful and they all deserve to be treated with the same respect. People with prejudices are the problems, and they are present in every race.
          I am proud to be white, just like a black or Asian or whatever should feel about its race and somatic traits.
          I love diversity.

          1. Just because ignorant narcissists came a long thousands of years ago and decided, without any scientific proof might I add, that creating a line to separate different skin tones, hair textures, phenotype, then calling them “races”, doesn’t mean it’s true.

            I understand it challenges your belief systems and what little self esteem you have but this is where humans are seriously flawed. Attempts to create classifications of everything around us, whether it be animals, plants etc, based on visual observations, has cost us some serious problems. We even attempted it with sexual/gender classifications.

            Now that people are finally coming forward and acknowledging the stupidity of humanity with all these ridiculous classifications, people with inferiority complexes, who’ve relied on these classifications and the hierarchies that were created because of them, are having emotional meltdowns!

            History repeats itself my friend. Your behavior must have mirrored those of centuries early who were told humans were different based on phenotype. And let me add for the record, the fools creating such systems were not using science. Just their own self limiting narcissism/sociopathy/psychopathy and need for power and control. Without it, they’d be nothing!

            And yes, there were many many people, especially Indigenous peoples around the world on every continent, who made no distinction between this sociopathic garbage of race!

            The stupidity of humans to travel the world classifying even animals into different “races” based on their adaptive characteristics, is laughable.

            Narcissistic unevolved idiots; So this one here has stripes, this one here has a fawn color, this one here has rosettes, this one here has bigger rosettes and this one here is all black. Let’s call em tigers, lions, leopards, jaguars and panthers because they clearly aren’t the same thing because of their color.

            Intelligent evolved homo sapiens: They’re still the same thing. Big cats who are apex carnivores with claws, fanged teeth, roars, some live in trees, some live in savannas, some live in jungles, some live in tundras, and some live in deserts. I mean they had to adapt to their environment in order to survive but they aren’t different just because of their fur colors and sizes!

            And why the hell are you distinguishing between a jaguar and panther anyway based on color?? Some spotted ones give birth to black ones and some black ones give birth to spotted ones! Duh!!

        14. LOL. “all deception to take white peoples identity away” LOL. Show proof of this ridiculous notion.

        15. Whats wrong with people? Who cares where we are from. We cant deal with where we are here and now.
          Arguments about cartoons and fairy tales! Again who cares? People are kinda stupid if you ask me.

      3. Evidence points to the fact that our nomenclature needs another level. Is a blackbird and a redwing blackbird the same species? Hell no… Their DNA may be as close as homo sapien DNA but the slight difference is the game changer. Skin color is. An evolutionary trait, brought on by environmental stimuli… Goddammit, that’s a different species in my mind.

        1. The classical definition of a species is a group of organisms whose members are able to breed with one another and produce viable offspring, which clearly applies to all humans regardless of skin color. Additionally, I feel that you have latched on to one trait, skin color, to lend support to your point of view, but why that particular trait? Why not eye color? or height? or hair color? If you take two caucasian people, one blonde, green-eyed and 5’4″ and the other brunette, blue-eyed, and 6’2″, are they different species? Humans have many different traits that have evolved over time to create disparities and visible difference between various groups, but we are all different flavors of the same design, none better than another.

          1. Like cranial capacity. Cranial capacity can be grouped into at least three different identifiable populations. Caucazoid, mongaloid and negroid. The cranial capacity varies greatly between the three with the largest gap between the northeast Asians and sub Saharan Africans.

          2. Dogs share 99.9% of DNA with wolves yet they’re considered a different species, even thought they can mate. Why when differences in humans are so apparent must it be a crime to ignore them. Dogs are all the same species, yet we have names for their differences, the term Breeds is used to describe differences, why not say different breeds of humans, after all dont women chose, or men choose, that is breeding for genetics isn’t it? Why call those that see the obvious difference racist..if there is no such thing as race then there can be no such thing as racist….?

          3. I love thiz feed. Racists and non racists and scientist referees. Enlightening. I think the white racists are being bred out . That makes them hysterical. A couple more generations they will disappear. Lost breed. Im glad to see mexicans come over the border and black mix with white and muslins on TV.

        2. If the game-changer is skin color than literally millions of African Africans are not black because the appearance of their skin color is white. For example, African America Katherine Johnson she looks white but Goddammit she’s not white she’s black. LOL Your point is moot.

          1. No one has ever said that skin color is the game changer. There is more to it then skin color. And yes, it is true that millions of African Americans are note even black but mixed, as is the case with Katherine Johnson. I wouldn’t be surprised if her genetic test shows between 40% to 60% European.

          2. This is one of the many brilliant African-Americans who have made remarkable contributions to the world. Thank you for sharing.

        3. North American was an Indian nation until the Europeans invaded and massacred the Indian people’s. When the U.S. was founded, it was already a mix of European, African, Indian, and many other cultures. This was never a “white” nation. Ever. The founders of this nation believed in the principle of equality under the law. This means one population subset isn’t “better” than another one. There is also ZERO biological evidence of more than one human race, though there are inherited traits based on ancestry. There is Zero basis on any difference in intellectual or physical superiority between these population groups. You’ve been duped into believing lies that let you excuse your own fear and prejudice.

          1. Nancy, there’s ABUNDANT biological-genetic-morphological for multiple, several, many human races, which is very plainly obvious, as with that the sun, the moon, and the earth are spherical. ‘Supremacy’ is not part of the consideration. Morphological-biology/genetics is all that’s being considered here. Different populations make for different cultures, especially when separated,…. and typically self-separated by considerations of morphology,… and which is biological, and most likely psychological-biologically distinctive to some degree. ‘Ethnicity’ is entirety consideration for a people, not just culture.

          2. From 1776 to 1965, the USA was 80% white, 13% black and a smattering of other races. This would constitute a “white” nation, just as the Indian Reservations might have a small percentage of non-natives would still be considered a Paiute or Navajo nation.

            There is enormous evidence for major intellectual and physical differences between ethnicities (races). Ashkenazi Jews have an average IQ a full standard deviation higher than Europeans and hispanics are a full deviation below Europeans and Africans are another standard deviation below hispanics. Pygmies male average height is under 5 feet while Dutch or Masai average height is above 6 feet. Whether one is “superior” to another is subjective. In the African equatorial rain forest pygmies are superior and in the tropical Savannah of East Africa Masai are superior. IQ is irrelevant for the San of the Kalahari whereas IQ is a prerequisite for abstract physics.

          3. There are differences between races such as skin colour, hair type, eye colour, athletic ability, etc based on genetic inheritance. Studies have also shown that there are huge differences in intelligence . The highest average IQ’s are found along the Asian east coast (Japanese, Chinese) where it is above 105. This is folowed by India / Europe where average IQ is 101. Lowest average IQ is in sub Saharan Africa where it is 75. These IQ values correlates very well with what the different peoples achieved over the millenia (and today) as well with their wealth.
            These traits are all due to natural selection. You needed a high IQ to survive in the cold north during the ice age. To survive in Africa you needed a dark skin and strong muscles but a high IQ was not necessery.
            Whether these differences are enough to constitute different species, is ofcourse another question.

          4. North America was never really a nation besides the Aztecs,myans and the surrounding civilizations which were located in Mexico and central America

          5. But both North and South America were unpopulated until humans from both Europe and Asia migrated. How can anyone with any knowledge of history, anthropology, and biology think that “indigenous” people in the Americas actually evolved as a separate race in the Americas?

          6. This country was occupied by the Spanish 200 years before the Concept of the USA was even spoken of. All the dum people who think the USA is more than the Eastern seaboard and the Louisiana purchase are Wrong. That’s the problem with poor white people, they think something is theirs just because they showed up. Too bad for you and your kids there’s nothing left for you bastards to steal.

        4. Skin color is not a game changer, it does, however, reflect one’s evolution in regard to a certain geography. A northern European cannot move to the Southwest US and not expect ramifications (such as really high skin cancer rates), and neither can a Somali move to Sweden and not have a detrimental health reaction. This goes for diet as well. If someone of indigenous ancestry changes their diet to something more native american, I would expect improvement.

          1. I may be a year late but: Indigenous vs native american? confuses me. What kind of improvement would you expect?

        5. Then according to you, wolves and dogs must be one species then too. And dolphins must be related to fish….same skin, same look……

          1. Dolphins are related to humans and puppies: Hair, nurse young, warm blooded, (what are the other?)
            Same look? that’s where you ‘go wrong’.

          2. Wolves and dogs are same species as they can interbreed. Dogs are domesticated wolves several years ago and diverged so much now.

        6. the typical definition of “different species” is that interbreeding is not possible.
          but that would mean Neanderthals and Denisovans were not different species.
          It’s such a fuzzy thing.
          The argument here is whether or not race is real or a socially created concept.
          For sure there is a social concept–or many social concepts–about what race is.
          That does not mean races don’t exist. Genetic tests do isolate what your racial background is.
          The out of africa idea is dangerous. not all people left africa, some stayed. some went back. some left later. Much like people came to America and to other places. It’s just migration. But after migration, groups stayed in relative isolation to develop differences. not individual differences, but differences in the population as a whole. different such groups differ with nearby groups with a gradient. not a sharp division. The amount of difference between different groups is generally not very much. But there are differences. That someone should say these things indicate some kind of superiority is an awful thing. Partly because it is so arbitrary what “better” is.

      4. The fact remains when you look at DNA it’s origin begins in Africa, not Asia. Therefore, your point on ancient skulls from Asia is moot because it’s debatable that are those skulls are part of human ancestry.

        1. Ok so let’s say that were true: so then us “whites” had to leave? Decided to leave? Yah I don’t think so. Way back then we would have been seen as an omen to the tribe and sent away to I’m guessing sympathetics. Being an orphan for being different. Denied your tribe, your people, your family.

      5. Lol NO honey the Egyptians were here 1st before ANY OTHER RACE!! You were genetically made 😂😂😂 Vicky patrisse Caucasian back past 6000 years ago #FACTS …WHICH MEAN BC MEANS BEFORE CAUC”ASIANS” 😂😂😂 it’s so cute how you guys wish you were Superior lmaooo

      6. Primates did come from Africa but Homo Sapiens developed in the Caucasus or Asia after arriving from Africa. Homo Sapiens then backtracked into Africa exterminating anything that was left of Homo Erectus. This is why there’s nothing left of any other competitor Hominids. Humans and Chimps share about 98% of DNA but no one would say the differences are just superficial. I say nothing can replace intuition as a way of determining who is similar to you and who is not. Saying West Africans and Scandinavians are so similar that what you see is just an illusion will never pass with the majority of psychologically healthy people.

      7. None of the skulls where homo sapiens that predate ‘out of Africa’. They was skulls of lesser or not understood mankind species.

      8. Hi
        You are so correct Susan. First, trump is not a Caucasian but is of Negroid racial origin. All of those in the Middle East and India came from North Africa. Darwin, who started this out of Africa lie was a racist against Caucasians and Asians who have larger brains. So to put his race on an equal level he made the false claim all humans evolved from primates in Africa which is a lie. Primates have always been this species as humans have always been the same species. His concept of evolution is so stupid of a lie he even said fish could become animals, ect. No that is not true, but their are adaptation programs in all creatures that help them survive in changes to the environment but they still remain the same species.

        1. Of course Darwin had SOME scientific theories that were incorrect, that is the nature of science. For example, the more we learn about quantum mechanics, scientific LAWS are being revisited. We still call Darwin’s findings the THEORY of evolution, and still today scientists are building on and refining his discoveries since science is and should always be evolving (pun intended). We just started understanding the human genome in the 2000’s, so give the guy a break for making hypotheses based on his observations. Darwin was simply applying the scientific method, yet the science and technology at the time was limited and subsequently affected his theories.

          The point is, he proved genetic variation occurs within the same species. This was groundbreaking at the time since the academic/scientific community believed each ‘race’ is a different species rather than the fact that within a species genetic variations occur. To say he was a racist, you have hypothesized (i.e., claimed) that after his discovery about genetic variation among species that he held onto a notion completely contradictory to his findings. What groundbreaking scientific discoveries have you made lately?

          1. What does it matter? There is good reason why humans who need blood transfusions are given blood according to their type rather than race. Blood plasma is identical from one human to the next but that is not so between humans and chimps. Whatever is meant by “psychologically healthy people”? A perfectly healthy person could return home “messed up” after being away at war. And likewise, if a state of war exists for a group of people at home, they could wind up being messed up too. America is as inventive as it is because of its diverse population. Haven’t you noticed that the scientists and inventors the US are not just caucasians. The US Naturalization Act of 1791 permitted only “white” applicants to become naturalized. What an anemic society would be today!

          2. I am Black and I have never seen so much sophistry written by people who claim that they are counted among a super race of some kind. I cannot believe that in the midst of battling Covid, there are people among us who are still unable to see the “fact” of evolution as the virus changes itself from Alpha to Delta to Omicron.

      9. were those skulls Homosapien? I doubt it. the out of Africa theory applies to homosapiens formost.

      10. Till this day and for all the other centuries before all life has come out of Africa every study recognizes living humanity 7 million years ago in Africa whereas every other young society of humans are thousands of years younger… so why is that silly to you? 🤣

      11. Nope… that’s fake news. A basic Google search for something like “ancient bones in Asia” returns articles from reliable sources that concur with the theories in this article in light of the new discoveries in Asia.

        1. There’s ancient bones everywhere but some are older than know south Asians travel out of south south east Africa thousands of years ago. That why alot of them are brownish skin .you white supremacists hasan huge ego issue ,i bet if you take dna test you’ll have atleast 1 % African

        2. Did you say “A basic Google search”!? Google is not the last word on a whole lot of things, neither is it the first!

      12. No it is not dead now, it has been adjusted, they believe the 1st group that left Africa did ‘t travel to Europe inside they went to Asia 1st . Much later some of the group that went to Asia traveled further to Europe. However; they have proof that the “black” man was present in Europe long before the “white” man arrived!

      13. all i know is. people under 5ft5 can be likened to a turtle. sometimes a two headed turtle.. they are snappy, like a turtle. . they love combat, as do turtles. they are all suffering from a superiority complex. they need to extol.. i find the nephilim, genesis 6, interesting. i find the taller people stand, the more they like to antagonise people. if giants or just very tall men bred with short humans that would cause, disproportion. i have observed this idea. people with long backs and short legs and the bum looks like it is the wrong place. callous. a long face like a giraffe. callous.. in fact, things that are disproportionate seem to be callous. i think callousness leads to narcissism.. i find the story about the serpent in the garden of eden interesting. i would imagine eve to be a kid. maybe a subtle child. archaic. as a child, she would be. so, i thought about it and read some more. darwin. darwins dogs is very interesting. hybrids and the such like. darwin said an interesting thing. dogs with mange show an unhealthy interest in young dogs. serpents would be bald, was my thought. i started to read some more and i started to realise, bald people claim to be empathetic/ empathy. i started to realise bald people seem to think they are natural teachers. did the serpent claim to be empathetic to eve. did he act like a teacher. was he really a bald man. an omnisexual man. a man who liked to think of himself as a teacher of children. liked giving lectures to the youth in secret. is he the real influence of the kama sutra. an illuminating illustration . is it a book showing other serpents how diverse, omnisexual , inventive even. you can get with an eve type. a subtle child perhaps. responds to empathetic men. men who ,like humpty, are on a pedestal. will fabricate stuff to remain there. scaremonger . so they can play captain courageous. teachers of children. secret lectures by an empathetic omnisexual man. maybe moses had a copy. i thought jesus said , empathy was unattainable. jesus might have said, it is observation and simulation. i find it hard to take things to seriously. if cain existed then he has a linage. i started to think what am i. i started to ask myself . i come to the conclusion that everyone who has blonde hair , as i do. are suffering from biblical righteous indignation. they are all liable to commit crimes of passion. we love gossip because we are dam informative. we are the reason for arrogance. we invented the snort of derision. in Europe they have a throaty , crackling sound when they speak. i think that is just a way of doing the snort of derision. so all the vikings could have been . arrogant people who were very volatile. out of africa or europe. i find the theory black people were the first to have curly hair, funny. i always thought of black people as a lover of mischief. maybe nowadays there is a line between mischief and crime. i always thought black people were consciously observant. black people really like to point out the faults. i have to say black people do strive for truth. maybe not generally. we would have to put it to a vote, i guess. so what do curly haired people do as a hole , that black people may have inherited. i like genetic memory. bottle necking in genes, wow. i think curly headed people bring to the table, logic. do straight haired black people think logically compared to a general population of curly haired people. my conclusion from data collected by observation. interview. yes curly haired people think logically. i would imagine we have a different race of people to black people . who were the original curly haired people. i would go so far as to say. curly haired people in white skin would have been likely. i liked your comment. i am out of europe not africa.

        1. Peter, I love your diatribe.
          It really questions the importance of the “race” issue.
          “Why is race an issue?”
          We’re all Humans, with Human needs for safety, companionship, and survival. To be human is to be at peace with being yourself. The rest is just opinion. Everyone has an opinion. Choose your reality, don’t have it chosen for you.
          I’m perfectly satisfied to be Human.

          1. Good for you. Except have you noticed that no matter how many times it’s said that race isn’t important (or that it shouldn’t be), people still focus on it? And have you noticed how virtually all racial and ethnic groups on earth tend to self segregate? Forcing groups together is what seems to be the unnatural thing. Why can’t this just be admitted? Lacking a time machine, virtually all of this other “scientific” talk is pure conjecture. The only thing we can say with any real confidence is that humans of all backgrounds and appearances really love to avoid admitting obvious truths because it might hurt somebody in the feels. The aliens are laughing at us.

      14. I realize you mentioned this 3 years ago, but if you hadn’t heard there was a discovery in 2020 of a skull from 200,000 years prier to the skull in asia, that was located in southern africa. Keeping the “silly” out of africa theory

      15. Black people are indigenous to this earth! African migrated over the whole earth! That why when you white came discovering every where you went you found black there.
        Australia Japan south America Europe black was there the history is still there! So its not theory is the truth! Sudi Arabia 1930 80% of the people was black! Are they there now because you kill them out! Just like Australia America. This is what white do everywhere they go kill steal and destroy. You white are not native anywhere on this earth you have settle today you are the original people!
        So you must ask the question! You are not the original native people where did you came from.
        Let me tell you where you came from
        First! You all are chizeiling out the black people on the temple in Africa right now and painting them white.
        Putting yourself on other people history
        It call stealing white washing history because you have no history.
        The sun the that shine give life to everything on the planet white people is the only thing that the sun shine kills
        Give you melonoma destroy you thT is evidence you ate not natural to this earth. White supremecy know this and lied to you all with false documentaries and the Darwinian theory a lie!
        White people are genetically modified people that why antigen and toxcin is in the blood stream AB A B blood types genetically modified blood types! Its a animal gene from K-9 jackle the dog and and rehuses monkey genes! Wooly hair is the original hair of the planet black people hair! Is wool. That is fir animal fir that white people have its not hair.
        Its the same as the dog t est it and you will see its the same folical as dog.
        This truth im speaking not fiction I have done the research. You should do it with wanting to find out who you are without byuss! Caucasian the Asian and the Dravidian Indian of India today are genetically modified people! Born with tails!
        The Blackman is the original man of the this planet made from the universe it self the you all so hate. Is the creator of the heaven and earth! The history is his!

      16. I personally I gree with you should be cleare if all human race dcenden from A which means Adam=African +aisa +European +native American

        1. Science is ever evolving please research and update and educate don’t just hate and remain narrow minded many discovers made since the out of Africa theory and it’s all it was a theory

      17. The oldest human bones ever found ( and also the second oldest) were found in Africa, my friend. Morocco & Ethiopia, respectively.
        I hope that you didn’t emotionally invest too much in the notion that they weren’t.

      18. the problem all DNA lines presently on earth are traceable to existing DNA groups in Africa. The out of Africa theory was robustly challenged by the Chinese who after exhaustive work meant to disprove it came to the conclusion that humans originated in Africa and migrated out into the rest of the world.

      19. This is a political statement. Its not even Science. This whole article is meant to appease a certain race.

    2. No other races behaves in the same way as carcasuons mixed with Neanderthals. Most other races are not fearful and hateful of other people, almost seemingly on a genetic level.

      Most races are curious or interested in different people yet white people seem to be scared or threatened by what is different.

      The only explanation of this unique behavior in white people, is that they are mixed with a primitive type of hominid that makes them way more susceptible to hate and fear. Kind of like what predatory animals do with other predatory species for competitive reasons.

      White people didn’t create anyting, they got all their ideas from non-white ancient civilizations, they’re so prone to fighting and destroying other cultures, they built technology that helps attack or defend themselves from people that are trying to exploit.

      Early humans in Europe probably befriended and exploited other types of hominid and then killed off the Neanderthals only keeping the more cooperative Neanderthals, which they bred out of existence. The remaining neanderthals were probably slaves until bread out of assistance.

      Donald Trump takes advantage of this psychological/emotional/cognitive weakness, people mixed with the Neanderthal genes that, the genes that are hateful and destructive. Early humans were probably smart enough to befriend others at first and then play the victim card to justify destroying obstacles/other cultures/peoples.

      It’s the only race that has this hateful nature in them that allows them to destroy other cultures and people, play the victim as justification to destroy them.

      It’s all because early humans in Europe probably came across different types of humans that made them genetically hateful and fearful.

      It’s not other groups that are primitive, humans mixed with Neanderthals teach them self superior out of their own insecurities. They take what other people have and build upon it, much like their ancestors probably did to other types of humans, this behavior has never left them.

      They keep other societies primitive on purpose, it’s probably part modern human and Neanderthal ancestors survived against other humans 40000 years ago.

      Donald Trump knows how to whip up those primitive attributes of early man and neanderthal in white people. Human intelligence has more to do with environment, resources and access to good education.

      1. It’s probably not differences in intelligence between races but rather genetic differences that give rise to the capacity for social integration and cohesion that sets apart Neanderthal/ Late Homo Erectus descendants in Europe and Asia from their sub-Saharan counterparts and thus explains the large disparities between the social, economic, and political development of Civilized Europe and Asia compared to the tribal societies in sub-Saharan Africa and the sub-Saharan Diaspora.

        1. Two issue with your theory is that there is no historical disparity of socialization between Sub-Saharan Africans and Europeans. Pre-colonial Africans tended to live in large settlements supported by a robust agricultural class exactly the same as Europeans did. The second is that Diaspora Africans on average share thirty percent of their ancestry with white Europeans. Mostly white male ancestry. As an example, the majority of African American males have Y chromosomes that trace back to modern European male populations, not African male populations. Meaning they have the exact same amount of Neanderthal/ late Homo Erectus DNA as white Europeans do. So any genetic advantage Neanderthal / late Homo Erectus DNA has conveyed to white Europeans has also been conveyed to Diaspora Africans. being conquered Enslavement and colonialism explain the large disparities between the social, economic, and political development of Europe and Asia compared to sub-Saharan Africa and the sub-Saharan Diaspora. It is impossible for a group to continue its own social and economic development when its population, culture, and resources have been converted to service the economic, cultural, and social development of another group of people for hundreds of years.

      2. This post is…. crazy.

        Western Europeans are unique amongst other societies in their level of interest in outside cultures. They are the only group of humans that have taken the culture artifacts of other human societies, studied them, and put them in museums (given them value!). Most of other human societies destroy the artifacts of their rivals. Your arguments about hate and fear in white European societies is completely baseless. Fear of outsiders is a fundamental human trait, and Europeans have done more to override this in their development of modern, open, and inclusive society than other group of humans in the history of the planet.

        1. Are you looking at the entire span of human history? Europe has had its dark ages. Civilizations rise and fall. It is so sad to hear anti European and anti African comments. You have missed the point of the article. I am sad.

          1. Civilizations rise and fall just as ethnic groups grow and go extinct. Europe is made up of the rape babies of waves of conquerors. 10,000 years ago Europe was inhabited by brown hunter-gatherers, then Anatolian farmers arose from the hunter-gatherers and out-competed these people, creating an agriculture based civilization. Then the Anatolian Farmers were out-competed by Aryan warriors who arose from Anatolian farmers. Later the Aryans were replaced by Goths, who were also a subset of Aryans.

            Evolution requires that most ethnicities go extinct. Modern Europeans arose from a teeny-tiny subset of founding Europeans who came from the Caucasus.

        2. Koffee Anon
          The historical fact is Europeans are not “the only people that have taken cultural artifacts of human societies, studies them and put them in museums” as you claimed. As a matter of fact, Europeans had basically lost the knowledge of Greek and Roman history because they, in fact, didn’t maintain SHIT. It was the Arab world (Middle East) who had maintained the knowledge of the Greeks and Romans. baghdad or Cairo, libraries held hundred of thousands of books at a time when the best European libraries housed, at most, several dozens. It was Arab scholars who help Europeans to translate books in Arabic into English that contained the history of the Greeks and the Romans. Europeans had not maintained that history, had regressed went backward and could barely tell the time of the day. During the Medieval Era, even Kings were illiterate and the powerhouse of knowledge was the Middle East, not Europe.
          History was rewritten to make it seem like civilization started in Europe and the rest of the world waited in darkness for Europeans to bring light. However, the historical fact is there would have never been a renaissance or re-birth of Europe if not for the Moors of North Africa and the East (Arab scholars) who transmitted to dark Europe.

          1. You are incorrect sir. The “Arabs” who preserved knowledge were actually newly converted Persians who were Zoroastrians and they were based in modern day Iran, not North Africa, nor Arabia.

          2. Thank you for your post debunking the idea that whites created intellectual curiosity and the notion of knowledge making. Indeed, African universities such as at Timbuktu and other places of learning during the Islamic golden age did have the kind of intellectual diversity of modern colleges- astronomy, poetry, religion. And of course, the philosophical discussions among Sanskrit grammarians from India goes back more than a thousand years.

          3. No, no u have ur facts all wrong, Europe was not the 1st civilisation plus I want to let u in on a little secret…all 1st civilisation s were founded by “blacks!” The original Greeks, Romans, Gogh’s, Moors, Egyptians, Jews or (Hebrew Israelites) were all Black! Actually, blacks are truly the only true “Humans” the White man is considered to be part of “Man-kind !”

        3. Currently there are 1500 exclusive white hate groups in the usa. More then any race in the entire world.Fear of outsiders is not a fundamental human trait. Take for example native americans. If fear was such a dominate trIt early settlers would have never made it off their boats.Same with spain and the mayans. Same with africans and europeans. Thats a lie given to us by religion and history proves it.Settlers generally where decently armed but very outnumbered. I dont hate anyone just replying .

          1. Natie Americans were mostly wiped out because of diseases that were carried by Europeans. Some Native American tribes didn’t use bows and arrows let alone guns and other weapons and were armoured like Europeans. Everyone is afraid of outsiders naturally, that is evolutionary advantage:

        4. Inclusive societies? The people of color in the US and Europe would (and DO on a daily basis) disagree. As recently as within the last 2 years there have been mass protests and statues representing white supremacy torn down.
          You ate completely out of touch with reality.

      3. Wow! You’ve just done the same thing as the alt-right – pointing out that a people with a certain skin color are genetically inferior. Hopefully your post was sarcasm.

        You also apparently are extremely ignorant if you think racism is confined to white people. Go live with the million Uyghurs held in encampments by the Han Chinese. Go talk to the Rohinga. Go learn about the other slave trade along the Mediterranean. Etc. Humans are racists and use power to entrench it when they can, not just one particular color of them.

        1. Saying: “But that’s racism” only works on people like us. Anti-whites don’t have negative consequences for their “hate speech” nor are they taught that they can’t organize on their group’s behalf. A virulent anti-white just gave a commencement speech at Harvard (Tim Wise).

          They will never return your post-racial attitudes.

          1. Anti-Whites have less or no consequences because its universally understood that the animosity towards Whites is rooted in truth. Everyone has legitimate reasons for despising Whites.
            Notice how even you identified the 2 opposing groups of people as “Whites” & “Anti-Whites”.
            “Whites” is self explanatory. But you didn’t put a specific race on the other side because “anti-whites” represents a a variety of non-white races. Races that dont seem to have any deep-seated hatred for each other, but all have it towards Whites.
            And the reasons why aren’t imagined. They are facts documented in history books.

        2. To identify myself,I am an old man,90 in a couple of months. I am also “white”. I am neither proud nor ashamed of my “white” identity , since I had no choice in the matter. When I came across this article , my affect mood) changed as I read the exchange of “ideas” or more accurately prejudices, I started with interest, then sadness, depression & I finally despair. I see no way out of the rageful climate in which we find ourselves as a nation. I saw many statements bemoaning the confounding the science of race with politics. Unfortunately, it seems to be impossible to separate any discussion of race, scientific or otherwise,from politics. Just look at history in general , or US history in particular. Just a few of the many examples: the founding of the colonies, coterminous with the beginning of chattel slavery I America, the constitution which at least acknowledged the existence of race bases slavery,the 13th,14th& 15th amendments ,Reconstruction, Jim Crow,& Brown vs Board of Education. Finally I’d like to throw out a couple of ideas I think are relevant: “Whenever beliefs and facts confront each other, beliefs win every time” and from Mark Twain : It ain’t what you don’t know that’ll get you you in trouble , it’s what you know for you know for sure that just ain’t true.

        3. The ” alt right” isn’t about white supremacy. The ” alt right” is just about anti blaming white people for everything. Read that again….
          It isn’t about whites being better. It’s about people of all races that understand that the white race is no better or worse than any other race and they’re tired of white people being blamed for everything bad.
          “It’s okay to be proud you’re any race except white.” That is anti white and is racism. You want to bring up slavery? Why not bring up how hundreds of thousands of whites died fighting to free the slaves? The left has ALWAYS been about racism. They used to be about white supremacy and now they’re about any race supremacy but white. They’re still about racism. The alt right isn’t looking for segregation or anything like that and trust me for every racist claim you can give me from a white person, a racist claim can be found from every other race. For every unarmed person of color killed by cops in this country, there are several unarmed whites that were killed by cops but unarmed white people being killed is not as bad because they deserve it apparently so it doesn’t make the national news. Feel free to spend some time looking at the actual stats from FBI and other neutral sites. Whites aren’t about supremacy anymore. That ended decades ago. Whites are just tired of being blamed for everything by a bunch of racist pricks that pretend they’re not racist simply because they’re not white. Whites aren’t victimizing anymore than any other race but they are being victimized more than most other races at this point in history by the numbers and those that point this out are obviously white supremacists that secretly think they’re better than anyone else based on the fact that they’re ancestors are from colder regions resulting in them having less of a sun tan.

          The cost of going to college is being indoctrinated by a bunch of racist leftists.

          1. Good points Chris and I agree wholeheartedly and I am a “black” man. I actually don’t subscribe to “race” ideology. Check me out at I think you’ve got it right though. My mission is to get rid of the “race” concept period.

          2. Please give me a break, boo–hoo let,
            Let’s feel sorry for the forgotten people that have been wronged for so long! White people didn’t die to help or save black lives! They fought to preserve their way p
            of life–free labor.

          3. The problem with the blame place on Whites is that the blame is appropriate. It’s not misplaced blame. White have done everything that other races blame them for. Some of those acts are from the past, but many are acts that Whites still participate in and condone (whether outwardly or by their silence).
            And taking the position of “Stop blaming us”….when/where has that ever worked for any group or individual?
            From what I’ve seen in life in general…When a party is to blame for something that thwy are guilty of, that blame ,and whatever harsh feelings that exists with it, remains alive until the guilty party:
            1. Shows remorse
            2. Makes a sincere apology
            3. Ceases the negative behavior.
            (And #1 & #2 might as well not even come into play if #3 hasnt taken place)

            We dont believe your apologies and attempts to “get passed” the past. How can we when youre ok with white law enforement exucuting our people unjustly…when red-lining still exists…when voter suppression still occurs, etc. You just voted in the most outwardly racist president in modern times, yet, you want us to believe you are not your ancestors?? Lol
            Just thank your luck stars that we are the patient and compassionate people that we are. Our dustrutive potential is something that…and this is no joke or lie…even WE are afraid of. We know that if we ever turn that corner, there will not be any turning back or shutting it off.

      4. Wait so your calling all white people primitive, hateful, fearful and essentially sub-human? Seems a bit racist

      5. You’re a lunatic. Let’s look at how the Mongolians burnt other civilizations to a crisp, the Aztecs sacrificed neighboring tribes, the African Bantus wiped the Pygmies to extinction, and Almoravids try to eradicate the Southern Europeans. Just because the Europeans and Asians did it the best doesn’t mean we’re the only ones that conquered.

      6. Chuck, you’re broad brush approach “white people” doesn’t seem logical. I dont know whether there are behavioural & cognitive differences based on possible closer lineage to other humanoids (i’m not even sure that sentence makes sense, I’m certainly open to ideas , research etc)… The ‘white people’ you are referring to ; lets say between 1680’s to 1920’s were some of those in power at the time (a fraction of a percent). Case in point, during the slavery episode; the vast majorty of ‘white people’ in the UK, for example, were not even aware it was happening (not internet, TV radio etc)…. most barely had t two farthings to rub together. A particular abolitionist, travelled the country and described what was happening in towns & villages. I cant remember the name , but there is an interesting documented example of a group of townsfolk in the north of the country were so appalled by what they had learned, they couldnt bloody believe it ; downed tools (that meant no pay for people who are already poor) and walked all the way to London (many, many miles away) no doubt getting support along the way; to protest. I’m just trying to point out that you can’t homogenize hundreds of millions of people based on a particular hue. Our species has been violent and continues to be violent… i thnk the question should be , what can we do as a species to acknowledge our properderence to violence and ensure effective controls are in place to minimise it. Enhancing our cultures, exchanging the best bits, supporting each other etc its a huge subject area (but must be solved if we wish to avoid extinction .

      7. tbf if you’re gonna go down that rode… sapiens were much more agressive than neanderthals, and white people are a mixed of that (contrary to us, that only got sapiens). So, you know…

        If you gonna act like a racist fool, don’t… be better than this shit mate, it ain’t worth it.

      8. Please re-read the article. While it is admirable that you are taking aim at White Supremacist tropes, you are mis-interpreting many of the points made about genetics by the author. There are terribly few alleles found in only one sub-group, and of these alleles, they are found in only 1% of that population. So to say that all White people have a gene for fear and/or destruction not found in other “races” is simply false.

      9. What a joke. Caucaziods are the Prometheus to the human races inventing and discovering 98 % of everything from the wheel to space travel. You sound so jealous.

      10. Only white race has hatred and fear? Perhaps you should read a bit more about Asian and African history. The Shaka Zulu story is a good example of discriminatory and predatory behaviour of a leading African tribe against neighbouring tribes, not different from the experience in Europe or Asia. (Quite reminiscent in fact of German ascendancy in Europe). As for Asia, you could not be more wrong: fear and hatred in abundance.
        In fact, one of the best arguments in favour of the similarities of races is the fact that ALL of them developed similar traits of “hatred and fear”. You should ponder on this.
        As for the technology transfer from Africa, true on basic survival skills of small hunter/gatherer communities, but do ask yourself why did no African group develop beyond the stone age? How is it that Mesopotamian, Nile and, later, Greek races developed to such superior cultural levels? Which traits did any of these borrow from African tribes?
        Interesting, no?

        1. Europe had better climate conditions and other environmental factors which made it easier for them to domesticate crops and animals first the domestication of these led to communities being able to farm instead of living on hunter gatherer communities and as you would know the move from hunter gatherer communities to farming is the beginning of civilization here In Africa where the climate conditions are harsh and hostile domestication of crops and animals ( many of which came from Europe and so took time to adjust or adapt to Africa’s climate ) you could imagine that by the time Africa got onto its feet Europe had long been running this could be a possible explanation that accounts for the apparent discrepancies between African and Europeans I’m general need I not remind you that Egypt is one of many ancient
          ‘ black ‘ civilization ( read from Babylon to Timbuktu the history of African civilizations)

          1. Weather has no bearing on success. It’s not the place, but people that make the difference. For instance, wherever the Whites went as colonizers, be it freezing or broiling, they triumphed: case in point- Faukland Islands to the hot & arid Australia. Race and Culture are very important building blocks for success. The Whites have both. When the Whites ruled Zimbabwe it was a prosperous country with all natural resources fully capitalized; what happened when they left? All that the native government and people had to do was to just carry on with the building blocks built by the colonizers; instead, they unleashed their atavistic instincts on their own land and people and degraded everything great they once had. South Africa is not far behind. Empirical evidence exposes it all. Show one country in the entire globe where the Whites went (except for 5 countries, they colonized everything) which did not prosper. Countries like India and other Asian countries which are now successful at least carried on with the building blocks of success set up by the Whites: hence, they are prospering. Show one African country that is succeeding!: one step forward, two steps behind, at best. The only Africans who are doing well are the ones who have migrated to the West, where they don’t have to build anything new, except join the mainstream created by the Whites and just work and prosper. Sounds taunting or provoking, but that is the sad reality. Even Asian countries that are doing so well in science and technology, commerce and contracts, are not innovators, but those who have copied (from the Western White) and even improved. Even for that there is a need for innate capabilities. The bottom line is clear as daylight. Race is not a myth: it is a reality- maybe it is an offensive reality.

          2. Noooo.
            Africa developed rice for example concurrently with China. Farming didn’t “come to Africa”. Africa has had its own kingdoms and still retains the richest person that ever lived.
            What have you been smoking. Must be the books that if you had read would’ve informed you.
            This is the problem with history, it doesn’t demand you know it -accurately.

          3. Really? How do you explain Icelandic people in an artic volcanic ridden treeless island being crime free, advanced, etc ..compared to numerous black nations that are in regions that have arable land, rich in natural resources, much larger land area, etc but are violent, corrupt, backwards, illerate, etc..just for one of countless examples..why in past 1,500 years all technological advancements, inventions, etc all whites..on and on..why to blacks out run + jump whites but whites far excel academically than whites…why can Anthropologists identify a person’s race with just some bones IF there is no biological races? Why because there are..of course there is much mixture, still much differences..and as far as small percent of DNA variation..there’s also little variation in human and many animals..thats all it takes..people are so afraid to confirm these facts because of social pressures..theres a difference in being am uninformed hateful racist than a critical thinking logical person who simply believes in facts + speaking the truth..whites get vilified to believe whites on average have higher intelligence than blacks, but Dennis Rodman can say in his book ‘no whitecan compete with blacks in sports’??? This world would be better place if we all embraced scientific, statistical, historical, observational, etc facts .Ironically most people embrace evolution..humans from common logic would indicate that if the Out Of Africa theory is true, with first humans from Africa being black, then blacks would be less evolved than whites

      11. Racist comments, one and all. Did you read this article at all? There is no proof that there are separate human races. We are all one race.

      12. Then why do the non-white races create such dysfunctional cultures/countries which then prompts them to want to go live in ‘white’ countries?

      13. I agree with this 100%. I am part neanderthal and white peope are full of fear and modern media compounds the problem by feeding our fears

      14. You do realize that you are making generalizations about people based on race, which is, by definition, racism. I am mostly northern European in ancestry, and it never occurred to be to consider myself superior or exile people from other races. I speak five languages of which only one is European, and have been “close” with people of many different cultures. This is because we are not many. We are one! We must stop explaining racism, or justify racism, or vilifying racists based on their race. The value-of-a-person-is-based-on-their-ancestry notion must DIE. It is the source of most of the great holocausts in our history and creates massive conflict to this day. It is absolutely, unequivocally ridiculous.

        1. Lol, you are eating nails and nonsense, generalization based on race is not racism, discrimination based on arce is racism, used your head.

      15. I have also come to this conclusion. Whites are primitive and fearful, for an unknown reason. Perhaps it is genetics. But I think one day science will have the answer. The rest of the world should open their eyes to the wests deception – we’ve been warned of this by natives for so long.

        1. They re fearful because they have something to lose. Societies that everyone wants to live in for example. Yet, outside white and asian societies, the world seems to be unable past the stone age on its own. Rampant crime and violence, nothing to fear really.

          1. Not exactly. Large civilizations did exist in Africa and South America, as seen in the historical records. Antarctica and Australia seem to be the only continents that lack them.

            Rampant crime and violence seems to be common in most of the world, as violence appears to be a universal trait. Though it does seem that only in the US will the stories of shootings over Nike shoes & Popeye’s sandwiches make the headlines.

      16. 👍🏽… it’s amazing how people are trying to water down genetics and make all ethnicities one ethnicity and not differentiate what we all know that there is a dominant gene and a recessive gene and the dominant gene expresses itself to wear when two races makes the dominant gene expresses it takes seven generations of watering down black genetics in order to have .7 white

        The white race is shrinking because of race mixing because there’s never to this day been known a white child born from a union with a black person unless of course that person is so water down in their genetics that the mix with a white makes them basically white

        1. “The white race is shrinking because of race mixing because there’s never to this day been known a white child born from a union with a black person unless of course that person is so water down in their genetics that the mix with a white makes them basically white”- That’s an absurd argument and it’s not true !
          From a union with a black and a white you also don’t get a black either, you get brown, your understanding of how pigmentation is linked to race and how colors work shows how much of reality you understand.

      17. but but but, what about the extreme violence of majority black countries and cities across the world? I thought only the evil white man could be so violent???? what is your IQ?

      18. What you wrote comes from a fearful and hateful mind and soul. Are you caucasian?
        I do not see as many caucasians acting as you claim as I see people of other genetic backgrounds acting as you describe.
        Your entire diatribe is nonsense, hypocrisy and pure bull shit.
        Congratulations! Your tripe just exposed you as both an idiot and a racist!

        1. “What you wrote comes from a fearful and hateful mind and soul. Are you caucasian?
          I do not see as many caucasians acting as you claim as I see people of other genetic backgrounds acting as you describe.
          Your entire diatribe is nonsense, hypocrisy and pure bull shit.
          Congratulations! Your tripe just exposed you as both an idiot and a racist!”- Lol, what he said is fact, black countries are the worst in the world in most senses, but I think it’s a mentality thing, genes have no fault in this.

      19. I have literally spent over an hour reading comments on this board. This is by far the most interesting (admittedly subjective) analysis I have read. Here’s why: my sister, a recently retired FBI psychologist of 20 years told me over 20 years ago that Caucasians test higher than other groups on the bureau’s psychological/personality tests that measure paranoia and skepticism.
        Secondly, while every group in the history of humanity has fought another group – the warring was overwhelmingly limited to an immediately adjacent territory. By far the two greatest conquerors of all time were Ginghis Khan and Alexander the Great. Of course they along with the other great conquering civilizations – Egypt, Greece, Rome, Persia and Ottoman conquered Eurasian peoples whose entire recorded history revolves around war.

        Groups such as Oceanic, Sub-Suharan African, New World Indigenous groups had skirmishes but were not ruling conquerors. They existed in coop societies with chiefs/clan councils. Their coop cultures did not serve them well against a white man whose way of life was brutality in the name of advancement and was singularly focused on taking everything and killing everyone to accomplish a means to their ends.

        Not since the extinction of Neanderthal has a group wiped another human group off the face of the earth. This is the case with the natives of the Caribbean islands.

        The lack of reflection and awareness of how destructive superiority and entitlement is to another human being is not a good omen for the future of the species. It’s the very essence of devolution.

        1. You gotta be kidding me. The only reason wars were not on the same scale outside of Eurasia was either due to lack of population, or lack of organization. How can you be so racist and clueless?

          1. Lack of organization/population? So ridiculous. You don’t dispute the actual history just resort to the laziest rebuttal. So the Mayan and Incan civilizations were able to organize well enough to build cities and infrastructure and govern millions but were not organized enough to conquer beyond their lands? SMH

        2. Exactly my thoughts. And yet the same Caucasians have managed to convince us that it is the other races who are violent with unbridled grid. Go back to history and every major bloodshed, every major subjugation and oppression, every major instance of looting, plunder, and disregard for other human life, has been done by caucasians. And the sad part is that the same paranoia and greed that drove them 500 years ago to loot, massacre entire nations, plunder and colonize other races in the name of civilization is what still drives them today. From unnecessary paranoia-motivated travel bans against non-European countries to destabilising the Middle East and Africa, they are still at it.

          1. Caucasians had the biggest recent wars cuz they were most developed, but Japan also did it when they also could, same with China and others, everybody did it when they could and deemed it a need.
            Gengis Khan did a purge o the world to conquer it when he could and he was asian, I can go on.Not to mention that africans battles with each other and enslaved each other for a whole damn lot of times and sold those slaves to caucasians and others. So yeah, so much for you being realistic !
            Races are variation of the same species, it’s the same species which developed and evolved differently cuz they lived in different areas and adapted a different phenotype, but they are the same species with the same origin, they just took different areas and evolved idffferently.

          2. The Middle East is included under the “Caucasian” category. The Mongols, an Asian group, committed many of the greatest atrocities ever known, slaughtering 40 million people in a single day in China (More than Hitler ever dreamed of) and brutalizing most of the Old World.

            The Chinese had to invent guns just to get rid of them.

    3. The article by Vivian Chau was a lesson on political bias masquerading as science. First of all White Nationalists shouldn’t be considered the Alt-Right. Why? They’re pro authoritarian and socialists hence Alt-Leftwing. The jabs at President Trump and the White House totally reduces your attempt at an interesting article to no more than propaganda and trash. Vivian is the epitome of what’s wrong with our “institutions of higher learning”.

      1. I agree totally. This was a political article,not a scientific one. And can I just point out a truth? Our president and the people who support his efforts to protect our country are NOT racists. That includes me. I judge people on their belief systems and what they DO…not on their color, or their race. That means nothing. But those who hate us and want to harm us are not welcome here…those laws have been on the books for decades,they are not the invention of Trump. The liberal media twists every truth into a lie they can use to get Power. It makes me sick. I refuse to accept the politically motivated labels they put on me. I know the truth.

        1. Trump Administration Accomplishments

          Almost 4 million jobs created since election.
          More Americans are now employed than ever recorded before in our history.
          We have created more than 400,000 manufacturing jobs since my election.
          Manufacturing jobs growing at the fastest rate in more than THREE DECADES.
          Economic growth last quarter hit 4.2 percent.
          New unemployment claims recently hit a 49-year low.
          Median household income has hit highest level ever recorded.
          African-American unemployment has recently achieved the lowest rate ever recorded.
          Hispanic-American unemployment is at the lowest rate ever recorded.
          Asian-American unemployment recently achieved the lowest rate ever recorded.
          Women’s unemployment recently reached the lowest rate in 65 years.
          Youth unemployment has recently hit the lowest rate in nearly half a century.
          Lowest unemployment rate ever recorded for Americans without a high school diploma.
          Under my Administration, veterans’ unemployment recently reached its lowest rate in nearly 20 years.
          Almost 3.9 million Americans have been lifted off food stamps since the election.
          The Pledge to America’s Workers has resulted in employers committing to train more than 4 million Americans. We are committed to VOCATIONAL education.
          95 percent of U.S. manufacturers are optimistic about the future—the highest ever.
          Retail sales surged last month, up another 6 percent over last year.
          Signed the biggest package of tax cuts and reforms in history. After tax cuts, over $300 billion poured back in to the U.S. in the first quarter alone.
          As a result of our tax bill, small businesses will have the lowest top marginal tax rate in more than 80 years.
          Helped win U.S. bid for the 2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
          Helped win U.S.-Mexico-Canada’s united bid for 2026 World Cup.
          Opened ANWR and approved Keystone XL and Dakota Access Pipelines.
          Record number of regulations eliminated.
          Enacted regulatory relief for community banks and credit unions.
          Obamacare individual mandate penalty GONE.
          My Administration is providing more affordable healthcare options for Americans through association health plans and short-term duration plans.
          Last month, the FDA approved more affordable generic drugs than ever before in history. And thanks to our efforts, many drug companies are freezing or reversing planned price increases.
          We reformed the Medicare program to stop hospitals from overcharging low-income seniors on their drugs—saving seniors hundreds of millions of dollars this year alone.
          Signed Right-To-Try legislation.
          Secured $6 billion in NEW funding to fight the opioid epidemic.
          We have reduced high-dose opioid prescriptions by 16 percent during my first year in office.
          Signed VA Choice Act and VA Accountability Act, expanded VA telehealth services, walk-in-clinics, and same-day urgent primary and mental health care.
          Increased our coal exports by 60 percent; U.S. oil production recently reached all-time high.
          United States is a net natural gas exporter for the first time since 1957.
          Withdrew the United States from the job-killing Paris Climate Accord.
          Cancelled the illegal, anti-coal, so-called Clean Power Plan.
          Secured record $700 billion in military funding; $716 billion next year.
          NATO allies are spending $69 billion more on defense since 2016.
          Process has begun to make the Space Force the 6th branch of the Armed Forces.
          Confirmed more circuit court judges than any other new administration.
          Confirmed Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch and nominated Judge Brett Kavanaugh.
          Withdrew from the horrible, one-sided Iran Deal.
          Moved U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem.
          Protecting Americans from terrorists with the Travel Ban, upheld by Supreme Court.
          Issued Executive Order to keep open Guantanamo Bay.

          1. I won’t waste my time debunking every single piece of “achievements” by #45 – like Gorscuch and “rape kid” Kavanaugh promotion to the supreme court.
            Just one.
            4 million jobs created.
            What merit is it?
            That number just keeps with the growth of the US population (from 323M to 327M people)
            And better not to talk about the rapidly government deficit and debt on the context of an expanding economy (deficit that was shrinking BEFORE #45 took office)

          2. lies, like your “University” or the records you said you would disclose, but didn’t. Worst part, is the complete and abject failure to use specialists in the sciences and all the deaths you’ve caused from it. ok, tied with the international failure everything you do is for the preservation of liberty and democracy. you really will say anything at all for whatever you can grift away for you, and those you use. no user has ever used people so great. gotta give you that.

      2. Ride On , How faux moral supremacist do not see their own racism! Please read, “Liberal Fascism”! Remember it was the founder of Planned (genicide) Parenthood Margert Sanger that addressed a massive KKK gathering after preaching Hitlers’ favorite theory “Eugenics “!

      3. Nationalsocialism (nazi party) is as alt-leftwing as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is democratic.
        How come Nazi Germany did not abolish private property and private corporations if they were socialists? (which was what the Soviet Union did)
        By the same logic, DPKR is a democratic country and not the USA

      4. national socialism isn’t actually socialism. if you knew anything about history, hitler called his party that to seem more acceptable to both sides. in truth, white nationalism is in fact ‘alt-right’

    4. As a Graduate chemist at Emory studying genetics, I assure this article has narrative, and is lying to you. Racial differences are largely caused by genetics- not environment. Considerable differences in traits exist between races and ethnicities within those races.

      1. Some have blue eyes, some exclusively brown; some are shorter, some are taller; some are more intelligent, some are less- these are all in relative comparison to the averages. People don’t get blue eyes from their environment- it’s 100% genetic and we can map the genetic markers that cause blue eyes amongst Europeans. Height is heavily influenced by genetics. The dutch are the tallest groups of people, and we can map the genetic markers that cause this. However, if we’ve starved 100 dutchmen from birth, when they turn 18 they might be shorter than Koreans. However, if we give proper nutrition to a 100 random dutch and 100 random Koreans from birth, the dutch will be much taller on average. Now environment has no effect on intelligence. The average Ashkenazi Jewish Baby is smarter than the average Polish Baby. This is true in their adulthood as well. These were all true in 1942 as well. However, if you prevent the Jew from getting an education in plumbing and allow the Pole to (as happened during Nazis rule of western Poland), the Jew wouldn’t know how to be plumber, though he could learn, and therefore be unable to use skills in a society and earn money as he might like.

        1. The environment has no effect on intelligence???
          I’m sorry but, I have to disagree with you. Just as you stated that if you starve 100 Dutchmen…they might be shorter than Koreans, the same could be said about intelligence. Genetics do have a role in intelligence, but the environment a child grows up in is a major factor, too. No matter how intelligent a child is, if that child is raised in a neglectful environment that does not provide a way to enrich a child’s ability, then they will not thrive.

          1. I disagree as I have seen people in poverty overcome disparities and become more successful than those with wealth and privilege. That has to be generics…

          1. lol….lol. don’t be silly lukas., Trump is a gentile and look where he is at! Jews were journeymen. …..

        2. Exactly thank you for educating some really narrow minded people who want to lecture us on science and facts

      2. Where do you think the genetic differences come from? Genetics? Have you read the theory of evolution, or even glanced at its basic principles? Genetics don’t just make genetics. They are literally shaped by their environment. Otherwise the mutations created by these genetics would mean that random traits would be the most common genetic factor. The fact that everyone is different from one another. Are you telling me skin color just appeared in all people randomly at the same time in a specific area of the world because of genetics alone? Could you be more wrong?

      3. You should study biology and conduct some experiments in black box recombinant genome mapping. If you do not agree that there is more variation within ancestral groups (debunked term races) than between them, you do not even comprehend the basics of what we have already learned. My advice, stick to your discipline!

    5. The “Out of Africa” theory pretty mych says that whites and asians are a more evolved version of blacks. I don’t see how it would “lessen racism”.

      1. Not “more” evolved. Just differently evolved. For simple example- dark skin is better for survival if you live in a region of high solar radiation. To ‘evolve’ white skin in Africa would be a fatal ‘evolution’.

      2. More racist lies…nothing to do with whites and Asians being more evolved. It simply means everybody outside of Africa had to adapt more to their environment but genetically, you are exactly the same. Every phenotype can be found in Africa…..Caucasians look Nilotic….think Tilda Swinton and Cate Blanchett. East Asians/South East Asians look Surmic and Capoid. Native Americans look Nilotic and Surmic. Middle Easterns/South Asians look Amharic. Australian Aborigines look Bantu and so forth.

        And don’t bring up that flawed IQ garbage because I can easily flaw that argument. As more Asian kids become more and more vocal, we’re discovering that Asians don’t have high IQs because they’re Asian, it’s because they’re being emotionally, psychologically and physically abused at home by their narcissistic parents. Same with Jews. IQ is not nature but nurture.

        And don’t give me that “we’re more advanced” when people literally have to pay for water, housing, behave like primitive beings by excluding people based on race, skin color, how much money they don’t have etc….that’s not advancement, that’s primitive! Highly evolved homo sapiens don’t exclude people. To do so would render you apathetic and apathy is not advantageous for any culture or society. Apathy/primitive behavior gives birth to psychological /mental disorders/illnesses…..nothing good about that! Where do you think depression, anxiety, narcissistic personality disorder, anti social personality disorder, somatic disorders, deviant behavior disorders, sexual abuse, physical abuse comes from?

        Don’t give me that garbage about conquering people unless you’re prepared to take a look at some serious psychological/mental illnesses such as, narcissistic personality disorder and anti social personality disorder….these are primitive traits that homo sapiens had to evolve from in order to survive.

        1. Your so racist narrow minded and truly full of your own BS read research update science has evolved and so should you really!!!!

    6. (((paraphrasing)))
      As the article clearly stated the far alt-right is obsessed with race, hence the supremacy part. Trump tapped in to that, smartly so, and therefore he got the votes. Now, the issues of white “supremacy” (far alt right) and white “privilege” (far radical left) are in my opinion superfluous. Also, if a person can brown pride or black pride, than they also can white pride. Personally, I think race or skin color pride of any variety is silly, and possibly racist. I’m hispanic, which is my culture/ethnicity and proud of that heritage. Of course, that’s a person’s individual right if they choose to be proud of their skin color, but the courts, or better said, the LAW should not have to deal with such trifles. Let’s get back to the real issues at hand like the bastard children of liberalism and marxism: Feminism and progressivism. Now, that’s our problem. It’s of immediate importance!

      1. No that’s seems to be you talking about it constantly your projecting your hatred and small mi d onto others your a brain washed Marxist the talk is all over you garbage

    7. Changing the use of the word ‘race’ to ‘ancestry’ might well be counter productive- one should be careful changing names to attain a goal. The word ‘gay’ was given new meaning in the last century – it was not long before ‘gay’ was used in a pejorative sense which still finds traction to this day. Choosing to look backward to the ‘out of Africa’ theory is also a double edged sword – the further we look back the closer we come to chimpanzee ancestry. To use the argument that ‘differences are so small’ is to mirror the same argument as ‘the differences between humans are so small’. The counter then is obvious – ‘look at the huge differences “small” differences make’. I believe fighting with science is futile – much better to accept the differences and focus on fighting racism.

      1. Where are the group or groups of chimpanzees that homo sapiens descended from? Should be genetic evidence everywhere but there is none. However, there is plenty of genetic evidence that tracks where homo sapiens originated from.

        People who want to look at the “huge differences” “small differences” make are doing so without understanding human psychology and human behavior. What you perceive as an “advanced” society is not as advanced as you might think. Just an example of someone who is clever at masking primitive human behavior and presenting inauthenticity. Remember, serial killers are successful because they wear masks to hide their primitive behavior. Sight has been the curse of homo sapiens!

        IQs are not biological but nurture based. The higher the IQ, the more abuse and narcissism occurs in the home as well as the prevalence of apathy…..all of which are primitive human behavior and have given birth to a litany of psychological illnesses, destruction of our ecosystem, contributed to the extinction and endangerment of animals and increased human suffering!

    8. Fake news
      the racial unrest has been growing in waves since Rodney King in the early 1990’s.
      And the willful blindness to the circumstances of these arrests is typical of BLM despite predating BLM by nearly 2 decades
      Many of the “test cases” for police brutality against blacks involved career criminals who resisted arrest from King to Rayshard Brooks. And anyone who raises that fact is labeled a racist

    9. We also know that every environment has a species that is best suited for it and thrives the most. We also know that within that species there is an individual or group that is most suited for that environment and thrives even more so. This is accepted nearly without question when we speak of wild animals……
      BUT all of a sudden when we speak of homo homo sapiens aka animals our minds explode and we can’t accept that the above is also true with the wild animal we have self proclaimed as humans.

      Which brings me to my main point if we think we follow a different set of rules than wild animals, aren’t they really the oppressed life forms on the planet

      1. We also know that cats and dogs are found on every continent along with roaches and rats too. I mean good grief, do people not realize that humans and animals are very good at adaptation….that’s how we got all the variations in phenotypes to begin with! Are you under the assumption that homo sapiens just showed up on different continents and were automatically suited to their environment?

    10. While I agree with the sentiment here. The out of Africa “theory” is just a theory and should not be used in factual argument or as a basis in fact. Much more archaeological/anthropological excavations will either prove or disprove this theory. We do have to factor the politics and funding involved in these types excavations that will delay the truth from being found. Other than that ancestry is the word that people fear the most because without it you only have the race argument.

    11. I wonder how a Data Scientist working at MicroSoft is qualified to lecture us all about genetics. Dr. Chou has no formal qualifications, and chooses to publish her version of ‘scientific facts’ on a website. How about proving you know what you are talking about by publishing this in a Journal specializing in genetics?

    12. Bru.
      ALL Races/subspecies start somewhere, diverge geographically, and then INEVITABLY Drift apart.
      You obviously don’t even know how EVOLUTION/speciation works.
      It did NOT stop 200,000 years ago with H sapien sapien.
      You are what we call a ‘liberal creationist’.
      Like their religious counterparts, they also deny evolution on theological grounds.

    13. The bomb threats like all hate crime bs is a hoax. When you destroy the western European people that you forced yourself on over and over I’m glad your world will be a dangerous hell. Keeping to ourselves and having our own laws rules and culture was not racist. It was to protect us from others who would force us to live different or take advantage. That’s exactly what’s happened. Our army has been used to fight your wars.our college taken over. Guilted like we have no right to be left alone. Like every other race who wants left alone.

    14. There is most definitely a difference between the races, just as there’s a difference between dog breeds. You may use the argument that all dogs share 99.99999% of their DNA traits, but you can’t deny the difference between breeds.

    15. Africans were the originators of this earth and we are a hybrid race of aliens. Ain’t that hard to connect the dots and not listen to all the lies

    16. Ironically the only thing missing from your article is how much those same sciences contributed to the problem they now claim to be rid of. I don’t mind the semantics but I do worry that this was purely for politics again.
      Yes they disproved purity. But to suggest that a little difference genetically should be ignored. Is the worst kind of whitewashing.
      Academically, especially the medical field and the field of statistics are suggesting the topic is more complicated. Just like the topic of gender it’s possible that both can be true that gender can be both a social and biological construct. But neither predicts or determines the other.
      All your article proves is that there are no all or nothing in humans. No purity. Thought that was given. Instead we play semantics with ethnicity by calling it ancestry.
      It’s an easy answer for a complicated topic that now voids itself of responsibility by eliminating those hard conversations. It reminds me of the whole color blind debate. When (Eurasian Caucasians insert whatever here for the lazy word white) thought they had the answer by declaring themselves color blind it wasn’t until they realized the people they thought they were helping didn’t ask for it and didn’t want it either, and certainly not by declaring them invisible.
      So yes let’s play semantics, again.
      Race for ethnicity disguised as ancestry. Let us know when that gets uncomfortable and we can hit reset.

      1. Thank you so much for this clarity. we need voices like yours in this issue. Please kindly drop any info you have to prove the existence on race as it would help my research on the ‘Genetics Basis of Racial Differences’, a topic I am currently working on. Thank you!

        1. God exists through the actions of the people who believe in Him, even if nothing else.
          The same can apply to Race, of course. So it ‘exists’, in a political sense.
          Probably always did.
          Not the fault of Nazis nor Indian Caste system implementers (the two share a common symbol, coincidentally I suppose).
          Is the fault of In-Group versus Out-Group evolutionary psychology, based in biology and physical, corporeal form and extrapolated needs deriving therefrom.
          But lets leverage guilt to get power, right?
          The human race will have grown up (IMHO) when we learn that two wrongs don’t make a right. Most arguments to the contrary are blinkered short-termist and selfish. Global-scale humanity cannot afford such a world-view, arguably. However, we are stuck with the evolutionary psychology and perhaps the only smooth way to mitigate the worst of it is to be honest about what it is, first and foremost.
          NOT gaslight each other to fit some received ideology, as if the ONLY reality that matters is realpolitik and the ability to manipulate people’s perceptions. That skill-set is incredibly over-used by people, I see it every day and they never seem to realize that culture at the personal level SCALES UP and becomes politics at a wider level. People don’t like feeling cognitive dissonance and voting for people who aren’t like them, do they? People don’t like feeling like hypocrites, so are in denial a lot of the time, despite ostensible intellect levels and education levels.
          What long-term mental-health harm that does!
          George Orwell had a lot to say about it…

          People are very self-indulgent in these ways, and in a bubble of selfish ego based I guess on being a single physical organism with varying levels of intimacy with any other(s).

          With Capitalism etc encouraging individualism to exacerbate a lot of the problems caused by this tendency.
          I am not a behavioral economist but such things are interesting along with evolutionary psychology.

    17. The elephant in the room is of course the low IQs scored by black people everywhere. They are in the US and every where else on the planet disproportionately responsible for violent crime. There are of course no white men in the Olympic 100m final. Just accept reality and then let’s all move on from there. None of this reality should lead to racism.

      1. I
        Intelligence isn’t a matter of genetics only, differences between races could be used to justify racism. After all, Asians on average score somewhat higher than whites in a traditional IQ test. And whites in turn score a bit higher than blacks. Do note, this very likely reflects average educational level and other factors and not race.

        It is very unlikely that intelligence as it is measured is hereditary only. There are numerous other factors which could explain the differences found. Factors like culturally determined attitude towards work, socioeconomic status, health and educational differences are divided unequally between races. In fact it would be illogical if no differences would be found between races.

      2. What do you mean? I am black, Eastern African Bantu and I’m damn sure I am way smarter than you. I am a computer/ AI scientist. Straight As in school since I was a kid. I wasn’t even top of my class. IQ is more of an Environment and exposure factor than it is about Race. How many Caucasians learn via my online classes?

    18. Is a German Shepherd a Golden Retriever? Is a Lion a Tiger? No they make a Liger. This is why an RH- man can kill an RH+ woman trying to impregnate her. They are making a hybrid. If you can’t explain something simply, you don’t understand it. This article is full of contradiction and opinion. We can be scientific with every other species, let give our own the same respect. We are made of several hominids and are still figuring out who we are and what we will become.

      1. What?! Where did you come up with this:

        an RH- man can kill an RH+ woman trying to impregnate her

        That isn’t true!

        Also, most of these comments must have been written on cell phones late at night. Lots and lots of spelling and punctuation errors, in addition to the pseudo science.

        Praise be to @rehypothecation for pointing out the article author’s lack of qualifications to opine on genetics. I am a “data scientist” and work at a bank. (That’s the context in which I am familiar with rehypothecation!) Only Harvard would be deluded enough to publish an article about genetics (with lots of underlying political narrative) from a Microsoft data scientist.

    19. If you want to see the proof of the different types of minds and abilities of the different races and why don’t you closely watch the baby’s facial expressions of the different races while their parents are holding them in their arms while speaking to them.

      Watch closely how the baby does or does not stay focused on the parent holding them in speaking to them. Some different races of babies will stay focused on the parents face and keep staring at the moving lips for the blinking eyes.

      BUT you will see babies from particular different races that can’t stay focused on anything in the baby’s mouth hangs open in their eyes wander off in space as though they can’t stay focused on anything for more than about one or two seconds.

      THERE IS YOUR PROOF of the different mental abilities of different races of people.

      And if you WANT TO know the TRUTH here it is:
      The majority of Black and Hispanic babies are the ones that cannot stay focused very long. That’s why they DON’T do well in school, don’t become professional technicians, etc. etc. FACT

      BUT, there are two different races of babies in the world that WILL stay focused on their parent’s faces FOR MORE THAN JUST ONE or TWO SECONDS while the parents are holding them in talking to them. That shows that those particular races of babies can mentally stay focused long enough on various things that are happening around them which improves their mental ability of learning and understanding. Do you want to know what those two races are? Do you have the guts and mental ability to accept what is extremely obvious?

      They are the particular various groups of Asian babies and the Caucasian babies!

      And do you want to know why? Because the particular various Asian and Caucasian people around the world during the last 500 years or longer did NOT allow Genetic Incest to occur in their villages because they knew of how destructive it is to the mental and physical health.

      And for you illiterate idiots out there: the definition of Genetic Incest is when family members have children from the same family members.


      1. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ Where did you learn that absolute crap from? All I see is the liberal indoctrination of our future woke generations of children being absolutely crushed by the Chinese people’s insatiable hunger for resources and territory. Meanwhile we are trying to save the planet watching Ted Talks whist they couldn’t give a rats ass. Us dipsit cats and dogs ( who shouldn’t really play with each other because thats just the way it has being for eons) continue to tear each other apart. Mean while China are stealing all our IP left right and centre and will just come and crush us anyway. Black, white yellow, green stick to your own and shut the hell up and get on with it. Build a bridge or build a fence both are fine when your good neighbours, because if you don’t sort your 💩 out China will build one for you.

      2. This is literally bullshit! Truthfinder there is nothing more stupid than what u wrote. It’s totally ignorant and unscientific to base a claim on something like that. Besides where did u get this information from? Is there some sort of stored and verified data on how babies behave when with their parents. It’s stupid to the extent that it even sounds funny. If u said something scientific it would have been at least considered. And what’s the claim of Caucasian and Asian being less incestuous. Incest is considered an abomination in most African cultures so u’re the illiterate idiot

        1. This is for crene….even to this day in alot of countries around India, if your first cousin is in love with someone you have the right to marry her instead and she has no choice in the matter…… look at the English royalty in breeding with only royal blood. It has happened thought history. And just food for the thought crene if an African tribe or any tribe anywhere had 20 people in it. (Let alone how the start of civilization could happen) In order to reproduce don’t you think there would have been incest or some family banging going on.

          This is how I feel and have to say about this discussion.
          Wake up, people of every color are feeding the racist fire, think what your saying and stop the pointless haiting.
          Instead Look and find the common things that unite us as people, we are all in this life together. Share, respect, think differently and put others first, that is the person who isn’t racist and just excepts being human. Stop this bullshit, we are all people. No one can help or change who they are or what color they are or even the iq level. It is nonsense and pig headed to to quarrel about such petty uneeded things. Put that energy into helping the world and others and mabey you will be treated differently by others…. no matter what color they are. The history of the world has been founded on the hate of racism… Spanish wiping out races, neighboring tribes killing other tribes, the gypsys being enslaved, counties sending in there children in for child labor… . Its all a form of being better and is racism. It’s in humans nature from the dawn of time, we as people need to relise it and step above this shit. It is nonsense that people can only like or appreciate what they know and aren’t afraid of. The world is afraid and is acting out in the wrong way. Take the world by the horns and do the right thing love others as u want to be loved and grow up.

        2. @ Truth Finder – Incest would be provable in genetic studies. Throw-in the African diaspora who were selected for slave-work (they didn’t take weak and sick ones, so it’s a form of artificially-hastened natural selection filtered through an unnatural-ish system called slavery. The survivors can have better genetics in some ways. Look at Jamaican athletes for one simple example. Jamaica is dirt-poor and West African countries might compete genetically with similar economic ability to train athletes? I am speculating here, incidentally.
          re: Incest – if ANYONE is guilty of that culture it is certain Islamic countries (not because of Islam necessarily, but traditions that coincide). Pakistan is notorious for it. That’s ‘Asian’, too, but referring to high-IQ you mean East Asian?

          @ Crene, not to disrespect your actual argument. However, “literally bullshit” would mean this is not electronic data on a website, but bovine excrement in your hand or something. So stop being ignorant about the best word to use for emphasis, perhaps? Not to be a Grammar Nazi – but there isn’t really any other word for ‘literally’ in the English language, whilst “absolute bullshit” might suffice to communicate what you meant (for just one example).
          Herd mentality copying the logically-proven-wrong way to do things, is one of the major problems this world faces, (IMHO – history has obvious examples of what happens when this mentality is leveraged on a mass scale).

    20. An interesting hypothetical: What do you think the world would be like if there were races according to biology? For instance, do you think it might foster greater tolerance for diversity, to name just one possibility?

    21. Don’t worry about one, or all five races!!!..Worry about the human race, becoming extinct, via…A.I. & robotics!!!….look up Hansen robotics and Elon musk’s…And Elon just moved to Austin, to mass production of work force bots….p.s..they don’t need vaccines

    22. So now some are cleverer because of some residual Neanderthal genetics – please, how comes then the superior Sapiens prevailed?
      Maybe the stupidity and genocidal history of humanity could be attributed to the defective Neaderthal genes running around?

    23. .Humans are constantly evolving and changing. If you analyze the different personality traits of different races, then you will see a pretty significant difference. Lol it drives me crazy. People that say white people and black people are the same are weird to me. There are pretty significant differences between white, asian, mexican and black people and the rest of the races. It is so obvious to me that i cannot believe that i have to type it out. All cultures have been built with different languages and ways of life. This led to differences in how they live their life. I am not racist. I am just observant. call me racist all you want, all i’m saying is that there are differences. if that makes you mad then something is wrong with you. If you are not okay with being different from someone else, then you need to work on your self.

    24. The findings, revealed in The Australian newspaper today, challenge the prevailing “out of Africa” theory ofevolution because “Mungo Man” has a genetic line which hasvanished yet his skeleton is completely modern. The “out of Africa” theory holds that modern humans evolvedfrom a common homo erectus ancestor in Africa.Jan 7, 2006

    25. Oh, so the problem is all a matter of words, “Race” is not good, but “Ancestry” is fine, is politically correct… please!
      The statement that “humans are fundamentally more similar then different to each other” is already a statement that there are differences between races, if you don’t like the word “race” you may call them “Somatic traits” or “genetic traits” call them as you want, but rest the fact that an African person doesn’t look like a Finnish one, if 2 Chinese looking people have a son, he won’t come out tall, blonde and with blue eyes, that is because his genetics are those of the Chinese looking people, and that will give the kid those genetic traits.
      Races exist, whatever you like it or not, and they are all beautiful and need to be preserved, together with the cultural heritage they carry on, and none of them must be discriminated or persecuted. I personally love every and each different race, all different cultures, costumes, habits, somatic appearances and so on, diversity is richness that belongs to the human species, and we should be happy and greatful for it.
      The fear of admitting that races exist comes from the fear of “racism”, that, in its negative meaning of the word, support the idea that one race is superior to another, therefore must enjoy privileges, while the other must be discriminated, its a stupid, wrong, and dangerous way of thinking, but the solution to eliminate racism its not to deny the existence of races, despite the evidence, because there are several form of racism, if you could eliminate the believing that races exists, do you really think that would eliminate racism? Absolutely not! there would be “racism” between poor and rich, fat and skinny, tall and short, northern people and southern people, Chinese and Americans, and so on, because racism is not a matter of word, its a distorted idea in the mind of the human people, dictated by prejudice. But as usual, “when the finger point at the moon, the idiot looks at the finger”. No offense.

    26. Ok so I know this is an old thread but you sparked a thought: Let’s say the “out of Africa” is true. What would that mean for people who were born “white” there? Most likely in those times we would have been seen as a bad omen. What would they do with a bad omen? But it’s a baby!! Yah… we were sent away from the villages to god knows where? Sympathetic? Who knows. So whites populated much of the world. And probably with an inborn hated towards those who threw them away.
      And now the “blacks” have hatred too for the way they were treated. And in some places probably still are treated.
      We all have hatred and pain in our hearts that needs to be let go. Just embrace love, live in the now and forget the rest!

    27. I suppose sooner or later Caucasians have to face the fact that this great country Caucasians with the blessings from Almighty God would have invaders that would come into our great country and absolutely destroy what we Caucasians forefathers had fought long and hard to build. The darker this country becomes the more unstable it will also become and we look the same as all of the dark or black Nations of the world which are poor, needy, and hungry. Meanwhile tge Caucasians will have lost their great country with no where else to go. What a shame.

    28. Blurring distinctions is not the way to fight racism. You aiukd do better to celebrate diversity. Political bias, as evidenced in this article, just causes more division . Yes , we are all humans.

    29. If a Sparrow has a different feather on it’s head than another one, it is considered a separate species. You can’t deny that there are differences. Asian writing and ours. It comes from different ways of thinking. Not one good and the other bad. Just different. How come every immigrant loses it’s accent after a couple of generations except blacks? I don’t know.

    30. In this article: Marxist pseudoscience meant to make people accept communism and make white people(I’m not even white myself and can see this c. ap from a mile away)give their countries away to invading hordes brought in by che ws.

      but “muh scientists” said. Your scientists are either ch e wi sh( like David Reich) or paid r.ts to say whatever they are paid to say.

      The fact that id, ots believe what some paid r.ts tell them instead of seeing the obvious(race differences can be seen with the naked eye from skin color to skeletal proportion to adaption to certain food, environments, etc) shows humans’ stup.dity. It’s like trying to write pages of drivel of why the sky is not blue when you can simply step outside and observe the evident – the sky is f. cking blue.

      Someone said that it’s not okay to want to stay a white nation. How about you go tell I srael that it’s not ok to be jewish, or african countries that it’s not ok to stay african, or asian to not stay asians. Of course you won;t tell them that because you are a mar xist r.t or brainwashed by marxists. The country is not a country of imigrants. and other lame bullshit marxist mottos. the country is a white country created by whites for whites and there are several law text that say that. The fact that subverting r.ts like Celler open it to invasive species, doesn’t make it a non white country.

      As for African Americans. They didnt built USA. They built the wealth of people from Celler’s and David Reich’s tribe — the same tribe who brought them over as slaves(yep, it may come as a shock, but not whites brought them over; but whites are too r.tarded to figure that out)

  2. I think your article is intentionally misrepresenting information in an attempt to present a version of this argument that suits your ideological predispositions. You have skirted over well measured and extensively conducted experiments showing average differences among races or “ancestral clusterings”. You link to an Atlantic article (which further attempts to obscure these findings) claiming it as evidence that science has not found differences in intelligence when the Atlantic article itself concedes that there are in fact measurable differences in IQ between populations of people. It is a sad day when our finest academic institutions are intentionally misrepresenting information to suit their ideological purposes. These findings are incendiary and can create issues including racist behavior; however, the idea that somehow you will be able to brush the findings under the rug will do nothing other than discredit you and your institutions opinion and reduce your ability to add important moral interpretations to the findings to avoid discriminatory behavior.

    1. Arthur Jenson,

      That’s a really impressive lecture. Where were you when I was completing my history degrees? Perhaps you should be a lecturer, except five very important things:

      1) You do not support any of your claims with academic research of your own. Your argument is you mounting a mighty fine, high horse with clearly nothing in the stable.
      2) Great academics go where the research takes them, avoiding any moral implications whatsoever. The fact that you are so morally obligated without offering any scientific research, contributing to a critically-constructive dialogue, indicates you are a self-righteous moron. I care not if you are degreed.
      3) Institutions is possessive and should have an apostrophe: institution’s opinion.
      4) Well measured should have a hyphen, as it is an adjective to experiments: well-measured.
      5) In the first sentence, you accuse the author of presenting a version of the argument that “suits your ideological predispositions.” Then in your very long, last sentence, you state: “…reduce your ability to add important moral interpretations to the findings….”
      A) What a skewed way to approach “findings”–one that is not academic.
      B) You don’t want him to make an argument that suits his ideological predispositions, but you do want him to possess the ability to add important moral interpretations to the findings? Hmmm (scratching my head)…I love circular logic.
      6) You’ve stolen the name of a renowned IQ and race psychologist, who died in 2012. Either you are his son, or a wanna-be thief.

      The only thing you’ve contributed here is:
      1) People like myself can deduce that you are an older, white male.
      2) You’re clearly familiar with another white male’s work from the 60’s that supported IQ and race.
      3) You’re a threatened older, white male. Thank goodness your 1960’s view of IQ and race is a dying one.

      Sincerely Yours,

      A Young and Genetically-Diverse, White-Looking Female (under the guise of Economist Thomas Sowell–Arthur’s critic)

      1. Race is not a real thing yet you bring up what you perceive to be the person’s ‘race’ based on thoughts expressed via his comment, ie he thinks this way so his skin must be this colour.
        Either you agree with the findings, thus would not atribute a behaviour of an individual to the colour of their skin( which you have done) or you do think that a person’s thoughts and actions ARE contolled by their ‘race’( which you expressed), thus disagree with the findings that what we call race is nothing more then the same as the difference in hair or eye colour.

      2. Uhhhh, I like your findings. Well it’s more like I appreciate them for what they are. While I don’t so much disagree with your research (I mean the scientific method is the scientific method) I do have some gripes with the questionable jumps in logic. I mean for one thing you just made the jump that white nationalism and ethno purism are synonymous with the alt right. I mean that’s a bit absurd in itself. While this is not a correction necessarily I just don’t think it’s healthy to use such identity politics with someone you disagree with. It just kinda perpetuates the very same issues people are having today. Especially since your paper’s aim was to breakdown these barriers by showing the difference between us was non-existent to marginal at best. Still fantastic work though.

        1. Also white power. Totally not just goofying around for realzies man and it’s not joking in anyway.

      3. Your article would be more interesting and useful without the political bias and editorializing.

        1. David Minger, Ph.D.

          i’m sorry but i’m going to pick on you because i couldn’t segue this into my previous comment.

          if i worked at i would def be saying that the client has at least 10 – 20% Black ancestry if the test came from certain southern states.

          (now is the part where your comment comes into play)

          i have a VBD which as you may or may not know trumps a Ph.D. and speaking of trump, my grandfather had a saying that had he not died 40 years earlier he would have certainly used about trump…THAT MAN IS SO FULL OF B.S. THAT IF YOU GAVE HIM AN EMEMA YOU COULD BURY HIM IN A MATCHBOX. (pause for applause) thank you very much, i’ll be here all week.

          1. vbd? never heard of one. Is that a certification, degree? or made up acronym?
            Google also doesn’t seem to know what this is as n indicator of knowledge.

        2. Totally agreed: her basis of 0.1% genetic differentiation could also be applied to the 1.2% differentiation between humans and chimpanzees.
          Maybe that could be considered a more appropriate comparison given this history of human behavior, outside of historical “high culture”, and the behavioral patterns of the majority of earth’s humans. It’s unfortunate that true science can not be divorced from politics. Politics serve the ape’s true nature, and not the science of higher being, in which the tamed beast strives.

      4. Thomas Sowell,
        You kinda had me at the beginning of your comment. Then you sorta lost me. Then you really got me PO’d at the end. And this is why:
        in your point 2) you say “I care not if you are degreed.” i think you actually do care for some reason or other because by that point in your comment you are mentioning degrees every other sentence.

        then your next several points are about his misuse of punctuation and grammar. reminds me of a high school creative writing teacher that cares more about those things than the creative part. easier to grade that way. btw, as a recovering grammar nazi i feel compelled to comment on “4) Well measured should have a hyphen, as it is an adjective to experiments: well-measured.” i think it needs it cuz it’s a compound adj.

        also, you left out the possibility he is my high school shop teacher when you wrote “6) You’ve stolen the name of a renowned IQ and race psychologist, who died in 2012. Either you are his son, or a wanna-be thief.” you are most likely correct but it is a pretty common name.

        but it was “1) People like myself can deduce that you are an older, white male.” thinking that ALL members of certain groups think (or look or act) the same due to being a member of said group is the very definition of racism (and ageism to boot).
        “3) You’re a threatened older, white male. Thank goodness your 1960’s view of IQ and race is a dying one.” hey! I’M a threatened older, white male. well, not that threatened and not sure how white i am (orphan) but most people would say that the 1960’s were the beginnings of liberal thinking about race. (forget about IQ. the test is only as good as its questions).

        whew! all that being said, i think we are on the same side on this issue at least and i hope you take my comments in the spirit they were given.

      5. “People like myself…” should be “People like ME”. Since you preach about poor grammar to bolster your premise and to agrandize your superior education, you should accept the idea that your inflated ego and lack of introspection is probably not due to a genetic flaw, but one due to a habit of being a pretentious windbag…hypenated as wind-bag.

      6. If race is a “social construct” then the adaptive processes of evolution with isolated human populations over long periods of time In differing geological locations must also be a “social construct.” It is objective biological processes which create genetic variation—regardless of superfluous variation, not social construct.

      7. Do you know your white to, why are you complaining against white makes if your the same ethnicity as them. I’m a Somalian male and when I immigrated to the U. S I was hardly discriminated. And If I was discriminated it wasn’t just male it was female. So stop acting like white females don’t discriminate, they do. When a child is born they did not choose to be white, black, Hispanic or arab. God(Allah)chose it for them and they should be grateful that their ethnicity (race dosent exist) was chosen by god. When your in judgement day god doesn’t look at your ethnicity, your hair what job you had, he’s just gonna think what good things you did. Just because some of your ethnicity did something it dosent the whole ethnicity is punished. We Somalians were already enslaving each other before the white peoples came to west Africa. East and west Africans and Arabs where working together to enslave whites (Mostly Balkan and French, Spanish) and other blacks and Arabs. It was called the Barbary slave trade when Arabs and East Africans worked together to enslave whites and capture them

        1. I have love and great respect for you Mohammed. The truth will set you free, and what you said is the truth, it’s not just one group or another its in all of humanity…. we are all humanity.
          We have no choice in who we are, but we have a choice to view things differently and love everyone and that in itself is life.

      8. Phillipe Rustone and Arthur Jenson do debunk this salacious articles claims. Not to mention Richard Lynn and Charles Murray.

      9. Hold on is this a serious reply? Is this who you are in person…? Wow sad… Lisen your belt a little there Poindexter.

    2. Spot on. This article is completely unconvincing. So what if most of our genome is the same and only a small percentage differs. That in no way negates what are readily obvious biological differences. If differences in intelligence are due to natural selection due to relatively more harsh environments, then no one should expect a big difference – only those genes affecting things like skin color (due to intense sun) and intelligence and impulse control/delayed gratification (to overproduce and store food to survive long, harsh winters). I find highly dubious the claim that there is no connection between the processes of natural selection that produce different skin color and intelligence. This is propaganda, not science.

      1. your comment reminds me of a movie quote, “theres only X% difference between you and a jelly fish, but that X% is what gives us michellangelo, mozart etc…”
        that small percentage it seems is more or less important depending on which political ideals a person belongs to.
        As someone who i s non-political, i find it intriguing to find nearly everyone has some form of bias. even if unbeknownst to themselves.

        our brains work by making connections to things, and making things easier to remember. it is INHERENT in mankind to have some “prejudices that will infact be proven wrong”, as part of our brains evolution and the way we have and will continue to survive. it’s is a pre-requisite to success to make shortcuts, even if they are sometimes wrong.
        all we can do is chip away at them slowly until, as a collective, we agree to some things as truths.
        with a world that shrinks in size, figuratively, with every new technology we create, eventually even the “skin colour” will dilute to the point where all mankind will have a tan coloured skin (unless a drastic technology – say a UV block from the sun over entire planet, changes our skin to all white, [think or morlocs from the novel A Time Machine]).
        – we are all different and all the same, nobody is equal but we should all have equal rights as human beings.

      2. 100% in agreement…but facts need to be ignored by the “enlightened” ones so we, the uneducated, can follow the PC dogma.

      3. Indeed, this article is rubbish.
        It’s funny how far the author attempts to undermine how race evolved, relative to region.
        I sometimes wonder if the trait of overdeveloped skin melamine was of natural consequence, due to some haplotypes inability to conceive external inventive protection from equatorial sunshine, beyond a crude mud wallow: afterwards such consideration, I decide to abandon the question- Such questions are considered “immoral”, and I have no paperwork that allows me to claim credence in asking such a question…
        Just look at the occurring practical cultural evidence of our globe, in the present: humanity is on a death march. This is so because our science has allowed inferior breeding strategies to flourish in the “developing” world. This is because our science has been sterwarded by greed and industry- not truth and honest philanthropy.
        What type of human being defends cultures which fail to recognize the simple reality of land carrying-capacity? A flawed being, that is who. Humanity’s only hope is for the survival of true intelligence to be transferred into a non-biological being, which could survive our own extinction event.

      4. ” I find highly dubious the claim that there is no connection between the processes of natural selection that produce different skin color and intelligence. This is propaganda, not science.”
        And you offered zero evidence.
        If you think your superior “white intelligence” will prevail every single time, try surviving in the African savanna armed in the same way and with the same equipment that african people inhabiting those places use
        I pity the lions!

    3. Thank you Arthur, I feel exactly the same way. The UN has conducted world wide iq testing 3 times in the past 50 years showing without deviation a gap of 30 points between Caucasians and subsaharan blacks, 35 points for north Asians and black Africans. These are hardly minor finding and the genetics represent the entire difference . This author is a flake with an agenda.

      1. To get conclusive results for a test such as this they should have done one IQ test every year, NOT 3 in a span of 50. How do you even see this as anything major with such little data? Also, were the individuals who were given this test raised with access to identical schooling, material, mentorship? Did these Individuals have similar life styles and hobbies? Did they all have to work in some way or another, besides school, in their free time? How many were testing in each region? what age were they? For small scale surveys a group should be at lest 372 people I believe, so considering this was world wild there should probably be a 100+ from each regions sampled from to come up with valid data that could be built on later on.

        From what I am getting out of what little you gave on these 3 tests is that you needed something to validate your opinion, leaving out other crucial information so others wouldn’t disagree. I could be completely wrong about you purposely delegating what will be seen and what will not. However, even I, a young college student still in the early stages of her schooling, can see your statement is lacking. It makes me wary to even consider anything you have to say or relay to be anything but fake.

      2. Another ignorant conflating environment with genetics and completely ignorant of statistical analysis
        Even comparing “whites” and “blacks” in the US would be misleading given the different lives both groups lived (free vs. slaves, segregated schools)
        Still, despite all their “shortcomings”, blacks managed to climb onto WWII figthers (Tuskegee airmen) and wiped the asses of the “superior aryan race” even when “whites” had decreed that “blacks” could not learn how to fly
        I saw a group of those veterans at a Walmart supermarket some years ago, and felt sorry for their fallen comrades fighting to defend miserable white supremacists

        1. “I saw a group of those veterans at a Walmart supermarket some years ago, and felt sorry for their fallen comrades fighting to defend miserable white supremacists”
          OR – you could feel proud of them for defending their home and people and civilisation DESPITE the white supremacists. Sometimes it is extremely hard to be the bigger person, even under circumstances where it would be desirable for ones own benefit or survival.
          See for example :

      3. It is difficult to divorce a person’s own perceived positives from their perceptions. I am an older ‘white’ male, whatever that means today. I have qualified for MENSA in the top 2% in about 8 different ways. I have met similarly intelligent people who are labelled as other races. I have two points that the vast majority of the comments seem to ignore.
        1) We are much more alike than we are different. The differences are used by those seeking one of Mazlow’s lower 4 levels to prop up their self-conception as superior in some way. It is a tactic used to divide so that power can be stripped from one label and concentrated in another. The fact that kind, gentle and passive people will always be the most common victims shows the inequity of concentrations of power.
        2) Intelligence is a multi-level construct. Memory – short (RAM) and long (Hard Drive), analytical processing capacity – number crunching (CPU), Knowledge (Raw Data), and Creativity (Software). Even assuming a particular race is better at a particular one of these doesn’t make it likely it would be good at all of them. Even if a particular race is good at all of them doesn’t help because Intelligence Wisdom. Applying Intelligence to Understanding and Experience leads to Wisdom. Not a lot of wisdom in focusing on meaningless physical differences instead of focusing on moral and philosophical ones.

        1. LCinSC wins the comment battle. Thank you for eloquently expressing my thoughts. Racism exists on either end of the political spectrum, yet this article focuses on one. I only say this because that one fact makes this article irrelevant.

      4. In general rating high in IQ can factor heavily on class and education.

        Poor whites and poor blacks seem to be similar in stupidity, and rich whites and blacks tend to have little difference in intelligence.

        Though it seems even in the rich class a few slip through the cracks – Koko the gorilla supposedly scored higher than our last president.

    4. pretty biased.
      “However, unlike the term “race,” it focuses on understanding how a person’s history unfolded, not how they fit into one category and not another. In a clinical setting, for instance, scientists would say that diseases such as sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis are common in those of “sub-Saharan African” or “Northern European” descent, respectively, rather than in those who are “black” or “white”.”

      this is not proof that “race is a social construct”. you’re really saying that science has proved race has a basis in genetics and is much more than a social construct but scientists have switched to more PC language like ‘ancestry’, ‘african’ and ‘european’.

      also most old theories on race didn’t divide the population into 5 categories, they were more nuanced and recognized differences between people of different regions within each continent.

    5. I agree . Intelligent truth that unmasks the propaganda presented in this article! It is unfortunate the the author is probably unaware of their deeply rooted racism and political adversity to conservative realism.

    6. Well put: “…intentionally misrepresenting information in an attempt to present a version…that suits [Harvard’s] ideological predispositions.” Intelligence is a phenotype influenced by parents’ genotypes AND other pre and post-natal factors. The controversy around the Bell Curve ( and intelligence may never go away. Regardless, maybe to avoid the ‘ism’ of ‘racism’ we need to use the phrase ‘people groups’ instead: groupings of genotypes and phenotypes, as in any other genera and species of animals and plants. And it seems the only way to eliminate ‘people groups’ and the further speciation/evolution of H. sapiens (evolution along the lines of Caucasians, Asians, Africans, Americans, Arabs, Jews, etc.) – and the controversies of racism – humans will need to continually interbreed or be annihilated. With the influence of ‘modern’ transportation, continued interbreeding seems inevitable. And that’s probably natural and thus a ‘good’ thing.

    7. I agree 100%, its also incorrect to use a parameter of measure just because fits the point of view of our idea, meaning, someone can argue that races doesn’t exist because we have the same DNA, but someone else could argue that they exist because we have different skin color, therefore, it all depends which biological element we take into consideration as element of comparison.

  3. “However, even if scientists agree that race is, at most, a social construct ”
    define what social construct, its a vague term

    “we as a species have been estimated to share 99.9% of our DNA with each other. ”
    false, this comes from old study, its actually 99.5%

    “In the biological and social sciences, the consensus is clear: race is a social construct”
    actual study showing scientists opinion on that?
    my sources say its not true

      1. ‘consensus’ is meaningless in a culture where people who believe in race are scared to express their opinion.

        the fact that people adapted to different environments causing genetic variation means race is real and not a social construct. it’s a strawman argument. no racist ever claimed there was no variation within races or that there was no nuance to it. this is why racists would call italians black because they recognized that the differences are based on geography not political borders.

        “race isn’t real because race is nuanced and everything that is real about race we’re just renaming ancestry”

      1. White light is a combination of all colors in the color spectrum. It has all the colors of the rainbow. Combining primary colors of light like red, blue, and green creates secondary colors: yellow, cyan, and magenta. All other colors can be broken down into different combinations of the three primary colors.
        The only color that’s not a “color” is black and when you think about that it’s kinda strange in itself. And in that strangeness I think we as people are wierd for using color to base a person of anything …. we are all different spectrums and shades and it’s a beautiful thing when you see us together… we make the rainbow, night and day, we make the beauty of nature in all its glory, every one of us, and there is no better one, we need eachother all in the same. Everybody is going to have a preference of a color over another, it’s life, everybody isn’t going to like the same foods either and that’s the beauty of it all. Just respect and love everybody as yourself and then none of the rest matters. Let’s explore history and the future together just as people, let the truth speak and work together for the better of all humans equally.

        1. Your comment is wonderful, i love different races, with all their different cultures, costumes, somatic traits, and so on, diversity is a wonderful richness that belongs to human species, and denying that races exist just because a bunch of idiots believe that one is superior to another is wrong and useless. The problem is people with prejudice, not the races.

    1. Not even to mention that supposedly humans and our next closest relatives, the Bonobo Apes share 99.6% of DNA. This claim that we share 99.9% or even 99.5% is patently and deliberately false and these tyrannical propagandists know it.

      Its like saying we are chemically composed of 99.9999% of the same carbon as cut lumber, therefore we are just like cut lumber lumber. It’s intentional propaganda to hide the fact of the matter that humans are NOT the same at all and very much qualify as different species of being/animal, at least between Asians, Europeans, Africans, and probably even pre-columbian people of the Americas.

      Another point that totally destroys this degenerate propaganda that all humans are the same is that it is said that Neanderthals and humans essentially have identical DNA, with only minor differences, which clearly manifest themselves in different behaviors, phenotypes, and outcomes; even if humans and neanderthals did mix to some degree for some reasons. If we are not neanderthals then especially Europeans humans are not the same as African or Asian humans, regardless of what the propagandists claim and no matter how much and how fast they are trying to pollute the gene pool so that their “research” can show that their genetically polluted samples from Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas are all statistically the same.
      It’s the old trick when you want to fudge the fake “research” and “science” with intentionally polluted samples.

      They are lying to you because they are trying to pollute and destroy “whites” people of European descent who produced the cathedrals, countless masterworks of art, all the most notable and productive and successful forms of government, and all the inventions and products even the Asians have to steal in order to produce. And they keep abusing whites/Europeans to make them hate themselves and to destroy their identity and culture out of hate and spite and jealousy. So they hide the reality that we are not at all the same and they are going to destroy and pollute the evidence as much as they can to do so … to destroy Europeans and their culture as they are doing right now. All for lies and sick depravity and degeneracy.

      1. Bottom line it started Adam and Eve. We all came from the same when we go all the way back up the line. Found and have read many articles where Caucasians have been enslaved, raped, used to produce children etc. Middle East, European, Irish taken sold, etc. and so on. All races ages all over world have been hung, beaten, whipped, shot etc.
        since last admin. BO the hate, race issues have soared along with divide. Destroyed a lot cost nations billions damages, over time LEO,military etc. LEO targeted killed, injured their families, homes cars set fire, and so on. Others set ppl up posting false flyers, false threats etc. while other groups actually were sending race threats, ? Religious groups Farrakhan was one. Then 2more grps left creates again that are about hate of one race. Seeing hearing it from man in Middle eat that the CIA finally took out because gov finally listened! Yrs to late! Told men Middle East go into counties mostly u know, get preg have kids they’d be Muslim, and so on. Push change convert if not? Do what they were told and we al know. Whole communities from Middle East, somilia moves into other places. BO remarks once or more were to deplete the main race more less. NWo take our freedom rights religions of us all. Exact revenge control. So many with false fake guilt. Many took their lives! Told needed give up theirs cars, home, whatever of value to others. They had nothing to do with or knew. Yet? Ones demanding it be done given to them? Have same rights, ability, etc as everyone else. Has access to more grants, etc for assist help than anyone else. More TV shows, commercials show only one thing. Yet we have how many different ppl in this and other nations? Can they not do shows commercials for all? CIA man admitted over 40 yrs ago it is done for social experiments, reactions, steer ppl way they want. Like all the history hidden from world? And esp USA because proves shows Bible is legit, much of the lefts political platform? Is a LIE! Democrats seem to think only thing they can do? Talk about, work sleep is on a race issue? Never values, policies for all Americans, anything for all Americans. It’s been illegals or one other democrats have focused on for 14 years now. This has to stop, if anyone else spoke did what lefts done? It would be end of times bad. We can’t continue to exist or together, grow, advance (were so behind many ways). Due to that over over every year. Can’t talk or ask ?, speak freely so on any more. Can’t dislike disagree with any thing public. Last admin and his spouse literally told kids to go home what heard parents say certain things? Go back report at schools so on. Not abuse, drugs etc. but race.
        Democrats won’t atop supporting that party

        And the we came from apes? Then my ? Is why hasn’t any more of them stood up walked and started driving yet? Offered kidney, etc. ? We know no matter what facts are if some can distort it, hide it? Lie? They will well not know for long time.
        Now we’re about lose our nation of rest democrats don’t wake up. And government as wells to stop and undo! What last admin did. Last admin with UN, their leaders which I want to know why what those leaders got for selling out nations their ppl culture religion.
        Better ? Why is it no one else in Middle East could help them?
        Because BO and others planned this long before he ran for office. And their still pushing agendas

        1. I would like to say I am so tired and disgusted with the race issue. We are all the same HOMOSAPIEN. The bible does not clearly state that it is a sin to marry outside your race. Sure in Ezra and Nehemiah it does talk about it how they broke peoples relationships up but it doesn’t say its a sin and to not marry outside your race it doesn’t say it! If mixing causes birth deformity and other abnormal stuff how come it doesn’t happen every single time then??? Why are there many same race couples out there who have that problem then???? That’s what really ticks me off about people and makes me so angry I just feel like pounding on the walls and breaking stuff for people wanting to break up peoples relationships with other people…… I don’t see how its a drastic difference if say a white person and a middle eastern or Greek or Italian person get together….. It not that much difference in akin color……. I know middle eastern and Mediterranean people some can be a light dark olive tan color and I don’t see the difference even if they are Muslim. They appear to be white just like me and plus I got a lot of dark haired people in my family line anyway so there ain’t no intermingling about it…….. I mean even if they are darker skin I don’t see the difference.

          Then people make up the darkness in skin color how black people evolved from Africa and that’s why they have very dark skin because they are designed to handle the heat. Well the middle east isn’t to far away and it gets just as hot there like in Africa. So to me there is a big difference in skin color from middle easterners and Africans. So it doesn’t make sense to me that black skin can handle blazing heat but light brown almost white there skin color isn’t supposed to be harmed because they have a little darkness to them. Doesn’t make sense to me.

          1. The introduction of this article was repugnant. It was likely written by another run-of-the-mill Trump hating democrat. President Trump’s emigration policies were necessary to protect our country from radical terrorists. They are not based on bigotry. There is zero evidence that Trump is a racial bigot except for statements taken our of context in a manner intentionally meant to deceive. Incidentally, has anyone noticed the marked decrease in Radical Islamic terrorism in America since Trump took office?

  4. Here’s a fun fact: Chimpanzees share 99% of human DNA!
    So according this article’s logic: “The few differences that do exist [between chimpanzees and humans] reflect differences in environments and external factors, not core biology.”


    1. 1.2%… As we both expose our chimpy teeth in a fine example of ape facial expression. It feels good to smile, especially while reading bad articles.
      Let’s hope for that non-biological intelligence “singularity”: the sooner, the better.

  5. This is good. Things i assumed since a child, with no real understanding of genetics mind you. Yes i always wondered if skin colour was actual genes or not, but having known many ppl of differing ‘race’ that shared simular culture, i instictivly knew that it was not colour that made a person, any more the hair colour. In fact it is stated by this piece that it is the same difference, ie none on a purely genetic level.
    But my only complaint isbthe highly political leaning of this article. The mention of Trump so often in amazing. The mention of the Alt-Right is understandable, though scientificly irrelivent, as there is disccusion of their beliefs in regard to race, but the shoe-horning in of the name ‘Trump’ makes it look like a propagana piece made purely to make ppl think Trump = Racist. Whether true or not that this is his personal belief, political bias and science should not mix. PS i am not a supporter ot Trump but AM a supporter of logic and reason.
    And on the subjuct of the Alt-Right and their views on race and what makes a person a certain race, all true from what i have heard them say, but it is amazing that no mention of the Alt-Left was made, as they hold many of the same views, ie that your skin colour is the only thing that determines your identity. That their views on what of genetics makes a human the type of person they are is based on erronous ideas. To the Alt-Left, race is not a social construct, and like the Alt-Right, the Alt-Left insists that skin colour determins the behaviour, thoughts and actions of a person, while claiming, i must add, that things that ARE based in scientific evidence of genetics, ie the XX and XY are a social construct, and that they have no basis in genes or science.( This is NOT a commentary on Transpeople, one’s choice, or should i say the lack there of because for them it is a need, to be the gender opposite of that they are born is one i respect and defend).
    Again, politics and the views of those reporting nor the scientists should not be mixed into science, but since the article it’s self brought up the political views of one side, fairness and balance demands that the views of the other side be presented.

    1. NB. When saying “…the subjuct of the Alt-Right and their views on race and what makes a person a certain race, all true from what i have heard them say.” I mean that the fact that it is true that this is their views, not that I agree that their views are true.

  6. This is an absurd article. Half of all alleles are not shared across humanity. That’s an incredibly large amount. Moreover any astute observer will notice that no additional species is used as a comparison device. How many alleles are shared between, say a Polar Bear and a Grizzly Bear (two separate species of bears that can interbreed)? Why, I have a paper on HAND!
    Quote from the abstract:
    “the proportion of private alleles (52% of alleles are not shared by the species), and Bayesian cluster analysis are consistent with morphological and life-history characteristics that distinguish polar bears and brown bears as different species with little or no gene flow among extant populations.”

    From the above article by the super-genius Vivian Chou:
    “and *almost half of the alleles* studied were present in all seven major geographical regions. The observation that the vast majority of the alleles were shared over multiple regions, or even throughout the entire world, points to the fundamental similarity of all people around the world—an idea that has been supported by many other studies (Figure 1B).”

    Let’s say, “almost half” is 52%. So, the EXACT SAME EVIDENCE used on a different species is PROOF THAT THEY ARE DIFFERENT SPECIES. But, with humans, it’s PROOF OF THE OPPOSITE.

    Academia is now eating itself. I’m ashamed that I once attended a “vaunted” institution like Harvard. Your shameful cowardice will ruin the world.

  7. As an adept scholar, I see this article for what it is worth; NILL.

    You may argue your viewpoint as if it’s true- I can deal with that- but once you mix in any political suggestion, I call you a fraud academic. Stick to the facts. They can hold their own weight.

    By the way- I completely disagree with your arguments in this article and am in agreement with your political view on Trump.

    1. This article is labeled as an opinion article. She uses facts to support her opinion, but is not claiming that statements such as “Those who oppose the alt-right, and other racist entities, must arm themselves with the same weapons: education, namely scientific and genetic literacy.” are statements of fact. There is definitely interpretation and opinion here that no one is denying.

    2. Touché! Amen
      Dr. Mondo I agree with your assessment. However I choose Trump over the left leaning who would and are bankrupting our society! It is unfortunate that we find it extremely difficult and maybe impossible to put forth a true moderate human to solve the problems. I expect the ultra extremism as presented in this article is the basic reason for this.

  8. I cant fully view 1st link because i need to pay for membership, i need survey of scientist that show consesus that humans dont have races, i havent found such survey yet in fact chinese are the only ones who have consesus that race exist. Look up paper by googling:

    ” On the Concept of Race in Chinese Biological Anthropology: Alive and well”

    Also by definition entire taxonomy is a social construct.

    1. As this is just an opinion piece, probably of someone with more of a ‘social’ science bent then actual science, i think that you have to take what they say with a bit more then a grain of salt.
      The way i see it is, yes there is this thing we recognise as race, in that there is high physical characteristics shared by groups of ppl due to many thousands of years of close group breeding, but the actual differences amount, in ppl of differing races, to about the same as hair or eye colour. Basically, seeing a black or asian or white as being different, seperate or not the same is like saying a blonde, brunette or redhead are totally different. Which makes sense really since that was one of the ideas of the Third Riech.
      But at the end of the day, the only real differences between the races, a part from the few physicalogical medical things, is the culture you are brought up in. Being of asian decent does not make you practice asian traditions if you are not raised in a traditional asian culture, being born and raised in a one country by parents from a a diffrent country means you are of the country you are raised in not of a country you have never seen( or more impprtantly, never grew up in). The colour of your skin, or the country of your ancestory, does not, can not, have any bering on you as a person. Nor, ultimately, is any culture you were not raised in your birth right. Your ‘soul’ does not ‘call out’ to your roots, for your roots are where you grew up, not something based on skin colour ir race. Your race does not make you more similar to another of the same race on the basis of race. Nor does your race make you different from another of a different race.
      Well, that’s how i see it

      1. Race is a collective morphological characteristics recognizance/categorization. Race is based on total collective morphology of an individual, in relation with people of similar individual collective morphology.

  9. You are wrong. We are not more similar than different.We are completely similar. We are essentially genetically alike and there are no separate races. Skin color means nothing.Its just more visible than other minimal differences

    1. Stanley, if you have eyes, and you use genetic data, you will see group differences, at the morphological-biological and genetic levels.

  10. This whole line of thought that distinct human populations are a myth is nothing more than the false musings of a leftist perspective originating from a conscious calculation to push a social justice narrative. DNA analysis says we are all monkeys (96-98.5% similarity), yet, obviously, we are not.

    Different Human populations have evolved in geographical isolation for the last 12K yrs. NO modern day population existed before then, and that includes modern day sub-Saharan Africans. The isolated splits happened, and are documented. L3 migrated to the supra-Saharan region, constituting the first split. The Sahara desert was formidable barrier. The L3 group went on to populate Asia, Europe, Oceana, and the Americas. In the absence of high speed rail and airplanes at the time, there was little opportunity for massive mixing, and as such the groups evolved in geographical isolation. Modern day Sub-Saharan Africans arose about 12k urs ago. Modern day NE Asians and Europeans as identifiable groups are dated to between 8-10k yrs ago. American Indians crossed to America about 13K ago. The Aboriges date back to around the time when the oceans rose from the last ice age, stranding them on Australia and Mew Guinea and various islands.

    From this point, ALL peoples evolved in their respective environments, Each population is a product of those environments and developed skills most useful to survival in those environments. These differences are present both culturally and genetically. When one excludes the genes present in all primates (98.6% of the human genome) you find the percent differences between the populations is much greater …. throw in differences in gene expression and switches and the genetic differences between the different populations is significant …… as it should be according to the principles of volition. Due to greater opportunity of trade in the Supra-Saharan populations of Asia, Mid East and Europe with regards to ideas and technology, these populations advanced to a greater extent than the other more isolated populations such as the peeps of Oceana, America’s, and Sub-Saharan African. But this is not to say the potential did not and does not exist in those populations, they were just late the party.

    We are very different populations …. none superior to the other, but very different. And no amount of leftist, social justice, wishful thinking, and creative statistics will change that. Frankly, I cherish my individualism and don’t want to be watered down into some stupid collectivist vision of a utopian oneness. I’m unique, and so are you!

    1. Thank you for being a voice of reason.

      A thousand authorities can not overcome one well-reasoned voice.

    2. That’s all much longer ago, than 13 minus thousand years ago,… more on the lines of 40 thousand years ago, much plus and some minus. Come on now,… that’s well documented. Look it up.

    3. Interesting perspective. However are you saying a Black child & white child raised in the same environment thats not inundated with white supremacy (hard to do in our current world) will not respond to the same opportunities and life experiences because of their race?

  11. I hate auto correct!

    Evolution …. not volition.

    And the various other auto corrects that make no sense.

  12. Had to laugh at the implication in the first paragraph that the election of Donald Trump is in and of itself that somehow is an indication that race issues are getting worse. That was as far as I got so can’t speak to the rest of the piece.

  13. Actually, races are quite different, and regretebly, unequal in many areas. To say we have 90-something percent the same of anything is simply a bad argument, we’re 98% water but nobody says we’re water. We’re 97% genetically the same as chimps, yet nobody says we’re chimps. Races differ in iQ, average physical strength, even life expectancy. iQ has proven an effective predictor of financial success in America, which is the basis of MODERN racial tensions (lack of consistent oppurtunity among all races.) The problem isnt people’s iQ though, it’s the college system. But that’s another discussion.
    My sources are highlighted in this article

  14. Races is general term. Races are historically regionally distinctive historically indigenous lineages which are simultaneously and nearly exclusively within distinctively recognizable morphological parameters per ‘group’, i.e. per distinctive more and less ‘broad’ lineage group.

  15. I don’t like the argumentation in this article.
    Firstly, we have the use of the term “social construct”. Generally this is used as an undefined and pejorative code word in an ideological context within the social sciences intended to indicate something is undesirable. So it’s a vague, loaded and often mis-used term we should just keep out of science. Where I live we don’t use the word “race”, but we still have the ability to convey meaningful descriptions for groups of people based on their ethnicity. Maybe we aren’t as afraid of difference as this author is.
    Secondly, the illustration with the 6 genes is absurdly simplistic and seems to be telling us, through its small sample, that genetic drift doesn’t occur. Genetic drift is a real thing, you can’t just wave your hands to make it go away.
    And this leads into the third problem – desperate to insist on “similarity”, the author writes off the visible differences as “superficial”, and then constructs a devious bit of argumentation: “the evolution of skin color occurred independently, and did not influence other traits ” and leave it at that – as if it has thus been proven that the only differences are the “superficial” visible differences.
    Why not put this “similarity” you are asserting into context? I note above somebody has done that with Polar Bears. How about Tigers and Lions? How “similar” are they, despite looking so different, using the same metric you’ve used for saying how “similar” your three humans are?

    I’m also very interested in “there has been no evidence for its[Neanderthal DNA] effect on intelligence”.
    Let the reader ask herself: how do you think *your* research school would react to a grant application that proposed to search for such evidence?

    1. Whereas I am not well versed in the inner mechanism’s of obtaining grant applications I have been exposed to some of the efforts to obtain same. My son is finishing up his phd work and we both got a kick out of your last sentence. That, in todays environment, would be quite the challenge.

  16. This is complete post-truth world babble. <— Real science

    Some of these leftist "researchers" have already come out and said that science itself is a white racist colonial social construct — so science has gone from being under attack by nonsense conclusions to LITERALLY being under attack. And yet it's the pragmatic that have been labeled and slandered as anti-science, straight out of Lenin's playbook.

  17. We modern humans come from different tribes that commingled. The one thing you all should’ve learned in school is to search and verify. From my research I’ve found that the tribes of so called “ “Europe” became civilized in building,reading,writing, chemistry,astronomy an so on thousands of years later than other tribes. That doesn’t make one tribe better than the next but it does stop the ( TRUE LIES) of race that was constructed by a people who were late to what we call civilizations. Why is most of the so called scientists from France /Germany and Russia what about the rest of so called EUROPE ? We must face reality we bleed the same blood and if you need a transfusion or a transplant the last thing you’re going to ask “is that from my race”- Be Blessed (WE R ONE) wish you all HEALTH AND WEALTH ☝🏾

    1. It’s actually quite difficult (almost impossible) for mixed-race people to get certain types of transplants due to their genetic uniqueness.

      1. It’s not about race
        Some of your own family can’t give you an organ donation. Plus a mixed race doesn’t exist

  18. It doesn’t have to be dangerous, we are all still homo sapiens despite what ever genetic or racial difference we may have.

  19. Human group categories should acknowledge Man’s unique differences while underscoring our connection as one species. This is best accomplished with utilizing The Human Family Tree analogy, as provided by the Human Migration Science research from the past three decades. Would it not be a step in the right direction to keep the same group names to which we are accustomed, but rather than calling them “Race” categories, refer to them as “Ethnic Branch” categories (or something along that line)? In this way, we can envision our individual branches as part of the same Human Family Tree which has its’ deepest roots in Africa. Conceptually, this is a reasonable way to recognize our separate heritage and common bond without compromise.

  20. This article started as utter idiocy. It doesn’t take much intelligence to figure out that the oldest race in the world is the negro race. Any well-read person knows that. While all of you would love to stir up racial issues, the fact remains, we are all related. Those of us who embraced God at an early age know that already. Those of you who embrace atheism don’t understand the idea of all of us coming from the first homo sapiens. And, guess what? They were negroes. So what? This idea of any race being superior or inferior is ridiculous! The atheist professors, the socialist ideology want to divide us with non-issues or what should be non-issues. Accept the fact that we are all one big family and move on to something else. Many of us are sick and tired of the old BS rhetoric.

    1. There is no way scientific or otherwise that you can catigorize the “first humans” as any specific color. Therefore I must conclude that your racist tendency forces you to attribute blackness to the true first family!

  21. “Muh racism!”

    It might be a fraction of a percent genetic difference, but there are real and measurable differences between races.

    Specific diseases in abnormally large numbers, physical and mental abilities, appearance differences. These are not imaginary, and it doesn’t matter how many alleles are in common or not… it’s what that means as an objective (and sometimes subjective) measure that is important.

    Humans are all tribalists. There’s a reason that China Towns pop up all over the world. We also like people who look similar to us. That’s why most of our friends look like us. (You rarely see a hug-a-rainbow mixture of colours and creeds with social groups.)

    You can wish away race and racism all you like, but if we really had so much in common, we wouldn’t have such a huge difference in culture between different races, often even within the same country.

    1. The fundamental aspects of human culture are all the same just expressed differently and that isn’t genetic but cultural…. isolation caused some genetic variance but human cultures are very very similar regardless of politics. Dance Music Art Cuisine all exist among cultures because we are individuals with differences but essentially humans are a monolith in the grander scale of things

  22. I wanted information about the genetics of races not a political diatribe about people who don’t back the left-wing terrorist movement.

  23. I find anyone, group, organization etc using the term “race” rather than ETHNICITY looses alot of credibility.

  24. I was googling scientific data, “surprisingly ” this was the top of the list on genetics and race. Reading a few paragraphs, I see why… The left wing brain wash is clear. For the love of every scientific thing you believe in, why the heck start out with a politicized thesis/starting paragraph. Let me guess, pet project, extra creds…. Keep politics to yourself and the voting booth… FFS, far left wing brain washing…

      1. i like darwins quote about, white is not a race. it is but a colour. i wonder if you are my white race or another type of white race. i am thinking about what kind of invader to britain would you be. jutes. i think they are so different to me. saxons. i believe i am viking. i suffer from biblical righteous indignation. i am liable to commit crimes of passion. i am arrogant. i use the snort of derision . as all blond haired people do. i love gossip. i am so informative. . he might be better of in black skin.

    1. mate i imagine it is good to be black. into mischief. watching that fine line from mischief to crime. pointy out the faults. striving for truth. be proud. watch that fine line.

  25. How can anyone call it social construct when the difference is there and even the writer who is strongly persuaded that race is a social construct admits it is there by his awesome genetics researches, because normal people with brain and functioning eyes can obviously determine person race even without those researches. There, the author of this article may argue with me that color, shape of eyes, noses and differences like that are also social construct . Then, I don’t know what reality he is living, and if instead of genetics shouldn’t be studying philosophy. Also he considers approximately 0.1% “mere”, but does he realize that average genetic difference between two humans, that could be selected of all socially constructed races is approximately 0.2% and that a mean differences of two species in class of mammals approximately 0.4%? Also I would like to know if the 0.1% is average difference between the races, because according to textbooks I was learning science in high school in my home country, there were just three races, Indians were in same group like Asians, because, according to the book Indians are almost the same like them and they came from them because they got to America obviously through Kamchatka. Unluckily, I don’t remember a mention of Oceanian race, though if the probable small difference between those two races was used to make the mean diference between the races, it really had to lower it down and skew the difference between of example Blacks and Asians.

    Sorry for my English, it isn’t my native language, though I am doing my best to be better at it.

  26. “Mounting scientific evidence has shown that humans are fundamentally more similar than different from each other. ..”
    I’m not sure if scientific evidence is necessary to verify that members of a given species are fundamentally more similar than different, and I there is no relationship between any set of reproducible data and “someone’s somewhere’s” thoughts.
    By way of example, consider the following statement is: “Mounting scientific evidence has shown that modern day horses are fundamentally more similar than different from each other. Nonetheless, some horses are mean.” Seriously??

  27. Reading this, all I can see is the Terror Management Theory at work. I am no learned fellow but I will give you one undeniable fact:
    Whether a Caucasian, Mongoloid, Capoid, Negroid or Australoid, you will be dead in the next 100 years. Better concetrate on the things that will bring about positive change in your life and those around you. So what if we Whites are more intelligent than other humans, should we start living on Mars alone? So what if Blacks are inferior, should we put them all in cages to prove a point? I mean, the race debate is endless-just evaluate each person individually and you will find there is more to life than stupid debates on who has blue eyes and who doesn’t. Thank you!

      1. Were those examples actual views or are they sarcastic point stating? Because they are the legit examples of racism 😂

    1. If it is true that some groups are less capable than others, that is frightening and has real consequences on the world around us. And your suggestion is to just focus on what’s on front of you while ignoring the bigger picture? That thinking will eventually catch up with you, and soon there won’t be any places left where you can escape from this. Your positivity will matter little when your neighborhood becomes a ghetto from which most reasonable people already fled from.

  28. Some of the comparisons of alleles of individuals of different ethnicity are obviously based solaly on exons being counted as genes. Genes in introns are known to be able to contain regulatory functions that have to be counted as well. It is likely that differences in introns as well as exons are thus larger (percentage-wise) than those solely based on exons. Furthermore, even a seemingly small difference of as little as 0.2% of genes yields a significant absolute number of genetic differences assuming a total number of genes – not only those of the exons type – of significantly above 10’000. Significant differences between ethnicities are no basis for racism, eg. for white superiority ideas. Furthermore, it is surprising, that nobody seems to emphasize that president Obama – while visually African American – genetically has to be considered as much white as black having had parents of both ethnicities. Am I wrong to suspect that he is not a lone example of such a situation?

  29. The person who claimed that his “VBD” trumps a “PhD” is merely calling himself a “Very Big Deal” and judging from his asinine comments he opviously believes his own hype!

  30. I came here to read a scientific article but only read till the end of the first section. Disgusting (but not surprising nowadays) that a supposedly credible university allowed such a politically motivated and biased piece of writing to be published. A ridiculously twisted slant on the current president of the United States. I will leave it to more academic and more intelligent people than myself to articulate the full wrongness of this article (in everything but the science) but suffice to say, ordinary people are waking up to race baiting trouble makers like Vivian Chou . From what I’ve seen / read, Donald Trump has done tremendous things for the Jewish and black communities since his coming to power.

  31. Basis of our society should be equal access to opportunity but not outcomes. This shows research demonstrates why. When we find disparities between races at a societal level that could be a reflection of genetic differences. But on an individual level, people with the same abilities should be given the same opportunities, regardless of race or gender. Because the next Einstein could be a woman of African descent, though it’s more likely he’ll be an East Asian man.

  32. Bastardisation of science to support an ideological position.

    Telling people that we’re all the same despite the obvious and unavoidable differences staring us all in the face is pushing shit uphill. 0.01% genetic difference is obviously very significant if that 0.01% can make someone look entirely different to another.

    A better argument for your cause would probably have been, yes races are different but so what?

    The differences between cultures and how they interact with each other in a global society is a much more relevant and practical issue.

    1. The differences is visual
      Not genetic, is all this article is explaining.
      So humans being grouped into race because of how they look 👀
      Is social construct. Your genes didn’t determine what group your in, society did that.

      1. The morphological differences are due to genetic-biological differences. Races are historically regionally distinctive historically indigenous lineages, and which were largely separate from other historically regionally disinctive historically indigenous populations,… and which the morphologies and genetic qualities show to be collectively obviously different,….. although we’re all in the same species. Btw, grapes of most species can interbreed with grapes of different species, from different continents,…. for one example among many others on the matter of genetics and interbreedability, with distinctive collective differences of the different distinguishable groups.

  33. It appears that the white race is the last edition of man kind, and their features are the dominant features of future generations. Descendants of white and black people starts to produce generations with less features of the black people and after few generations all of them will have the white features, as designed by a Creator. Observed during my life.

    1. Luis,
      The only way future generations would get more and more white would be if there were only white spouses for all subsequent generations.
      If there were only more heavily pigmented skined spouses for each generation then the generations would get progressively darker skinned and ultimately be black.
      This how it works in nature, or if you prefer, designed by a creator.

      1. How did the first white person come to be then? We magically appeared out of darkness that can’t produce white

  34. Actually from what ive seen in Through the wormhole the difference is 99.50 not 99.99 as they claimHalf a point is a lot if you bear in mind who differ from monkeys only 3%

  35. The standard argument, you see over and over, basically boils down to “Environmental causes for observed differences exist, therefore is no possibility whatsoever that there are any genetic causes for these differences.”

    It’s such a stupid and intellectually dishonest argument it beggars belief.

    Reminder that, in 2019, even institutions like Harvard are little more than glorified degree mills. Except degree mills are neutral in that they don’t really impact your quality of thought one way or the other. The intensive ideological indoctrination you receive at places like Harvard will basically obliterate your capacity for honest, well balanced, thorough thought, and leave those who graduate less well mentally equipped than they were when they enrolled. The only real skill gained is how to be a highly polished professional liar.

    Human skulls from different races look notably different, for crying out loud. You can identify race from skeletal structure. But if you have graduated from Harvard, you will gain the ability to state with great confidence that all of this is the result only of environmental and cultural factors.

  36. Why is there such a pathetic obsession with politicizing everything? I was hoping to read an intelligent, objective article about an area I’ve had a long interest in. Not an article infected with tired political talking points. Are you really so blind and insulated in your elitist group-think echo chamber that you don’t understand that bigotry and racism occur on both the left and the right? These days, in fact, vicious bigotry and racism has become a hateful and accepted obsession by those on the left, with predictable and appalling consistency. What happened to objective, reasonable, and intelligent thought and discussion of substantive issues important to us all? Harvard has certainly lost its shine, and is truly nothing special anymore. It has become just another political propaganda mill for the left, with diminishing credibility, and a very predictable, and very tiresome, group-think perspective. Great topic, but sadly ruined by infection with unnecessary and senseless political agenda.

  37. Core statements of this article like “The few differences that do exist reflect differences in environments and external factors, not core biology.” and “race is a social construct, not a biological attribute” are scientific inaccurate. You don’t need a Ph.D to know that many racial attributes, e.g. skin, eye, hair colors, are dominantly determined by gene. Also, it’s alarming that most cited sources are not academic papers (surprisingly high number are just news reports), despite the author puts “science” in headline and adopts academic writing style.

  38. Looking through the comments
    I see people who can’t face the reality of biology. There’s plenty of scientist that give you proof . And there is a paper on the human genome. This is old news.. people can’t accept facts because the race titles brainwashing is to deep and they re comfortable with their fake identity society gave em.

    1. Wake up and smell the flowers! Roses do not only look different from Daisy’s but smell and taste different! You are totally misled and confused “ brainwashed” it is a crying shame!

  39. Most of this article is the same propaganda about the so-called “alt-right”, as evidenced in the repeated use of that now ludicrously overused term. Political bias and demonizing the alleged alt-right (never properly defined) is what characterizes the whole article. The author seems to be preaching her own political bias and practicing political evangelism disguised as reasoning on a common issue and using science as a catalyst for pushing her own political agenda.
    FACT: Racism came back in style big time with Obama, not Trump, and was ridiculously augmented by the liberal left lunatics in the lamestream media pushing the race card everywhere all the time. Trump inherited the Obama revival of racism legacy.

    1. Exactly, it is under Obama that they went completely nuts with race baiting and racism against whites. And then you get Obama’s mosque speech, which was so horrible that I couldn’t believe what I was hearing.

  40. This is a blatant misrepresentation of the facts. It is a noble lie, but a lie nonetheless.

    Geneticists can now accurately determine the race of an individual.

    This is not to say that race is not a social construct… but that is a very vague explanation. That we put a shade of one color in blue and not purple is also a social construct in the same sense.

    1. It is doubtful you actually read the article you reference, or if you did you either did not understand it or are deliberately mischaracterizing it. A quote from it: “individuals are frequently more similar to members of other populations than to members of their own population. Thus, caution should be used when using geographic or genetic ancestry to make inferences about individual phenotypes.”

  41. This article had me believing its precept, then it got political and lost me completely and made me doubt the author is unbiased and not promulgating real science. I like Trump’s policies. I love the US and our constitution. I respect all those who respect others.

    1. You need to know a lot of biology esp genetics to contribute meaningfully to this question.. For example all living people belong to the genus Homo and species sapiens, which may be a bit of a surprise,but a number of the don’t seem to know this. There are significant implications

  42. Why is there such a pathetic obsession with politicizing everything? I was hoping to read an intelligent, objective article about an area I’ve had a long interest in. Not an article infected with tired political talking points. Are you really so blind and insulated in your elitist group-think echo chamber that you don’t understand that bigotry and racism occur on both the left and the right? These days, in fact, vicious bigotry and racism has become a hateful and accepted obsession by those on the left, with predictable and appalling consistency

  43. Lefties at it again.
    Trying to pass-off a dysfunctional ideology as “medical evidence”, and do it by using the “Harvard” institution’s name as back-up. tsk tsk tsk lefties ….. do try harder.

  44. I am not convinced that molecular biology is an appropriate tool for ending racism/ white supremacy. Psychology is. The same tools used to diagnose and treat sociopathic narcissism would be appropriate for treating racists, or at least for protecting the public from them.

  45. Finally! an article that says we are all the same, we are all HUMAN!- WOW! what a thought! I have adopted this as my new Social, Political description that I want to be called.

    Soooo can the arguing stop now? Can the hate toward ANY race stop now??!!

  46. one thing is for sure, STUPIDITY is shared among “RACES”, big and small skulls seem to handle it effectively and efficiently.

  47. I was raised in Australia which is home to many people from different countries and races. Here, the “white man” rules the place and racism is rife.
    I know this because Ive spent time in other countries and I think Australia has a really bad racism problem that they need to work on. Anyway, my father is north east Italian and “white”. A recent DNA test showed he’s barely Italian though: (because of where his city is located) : 65% Eastern Europe & Russia (Genetic Community North East Italy, Croatia and Bosnia & Herzogovina), 17% Italy, 11% France, 4% Germanic Europe, 2% Baltics, 1% Greece & The Balkans.My mother is 82% Polynesian (Maori) (Genetic Community Hawaii Tonga & Samoa), 4% Tongan/Samoan (a mix) and the rest is European (Ireland & Scotland, Germanic Europe, England, Wales, North Western Europe). To me when I look at both sides of my family and when I see other races I do believe that some races are more evolved or developed than others. Please dont try to convince me that my Mum’s race is as developed as Dad’s. All the Maori’s that are succeeding today are either mixed with European heritage or barely have Maori in them at all. Its not to criticise Mums race at all but Im tired of all this politically correct rubbish. Yes of course there are the odd exceptions here and there. Chinese people tend to be academically smart, whats wrong with stating an obvious fact? I really dont like how you get white or brown/black people who sit there pretending they are oh so open minded about races, lets love and accept each other etc. Theyre just trying to appear open minded and inclusive because it makes them look good. What does love and acceptance have to do with the fact that we are different?The problem though is that the “white man” has used his intelligence to harm other races (mine included). The Aboriginals here in Australia have suffered greatly and still do today at the hands of white people who implement racist laws. My people, the Maori have had an easier time because they fought back and a treaty was made. The defenceless Aboriginals had no chance at all. You cannot deny that some races are more evolved or developed than others, you only need to see the physical features and behaviour of different races to know that

    1. Continuing from my previous post above…….It’s really simple, white people are more intelligent than the darker skinned races. Its a fact. The brown/black races dont want to accept this fact so the only thing they can talk about is how they are discriminated against because of their race. And yes white people have harmed certain races, how? By forcing them to integrate into white society and pretending they are equal. Then when those races find it difficult to fit into a society that is not part of their cultural heritage they are treated like they are hopeless or not good enough or whatever. No. Its because they will never fit in! How about lets accept that we arent equal in every way and leave it alone. We are all equal as human beings yes but lets speak the truth for once and be real! I am quite sure that if it was Africans for example running the world today they would be more racist than white people are! Oh but no-ones allowed to say that right? But black people are allowed to cry racism any time they like! Ive dealt with African people (and Polynesian people too) who assume I’m “European” because of my name and because I dont “look” Polynesian and believe me they can be so racist! The best thing that could happen is stop lying about how we’re all equal, and work with each other to make the world a more peaceful place. That means accepting our differences as races and encouraging people to be the best they can be within their own race

      1. There does not appear to be any evidence to support these claims. The primary factors in intelligence are consistently shown to be wealth/class and education. I live in an area of both poor whites and poor blacks, and both are similarly too stupid to live.

        If this were true, the majority of the low-income white American population wouldn’t believe that drinking bleach can cure cancer (or any of the more crackpot “conspiracy” theories going around).

    2. Aww gawd some of these comments are so depressing. My son and l are different colors. According to some commentators (taking their comments to there full conclusion) it would seem that l have managed the spectacular biological feat of giving birth to someone who is a different species to myself.
      In addition, this would also seem that he would automatically have an IQ 30 points lower than my self and various other qualities all inferior to my own
      He also likes to spend lots of time working in hot countries where he tans very deeply. Does his IQ drop when this happens?
      If we were genetically tested only l (and his father) would match as his parents. You could test everyone on this planet, only we will match.
      Only one of us has had to run for our lives from a bunch of yobs shouting n****r, n****r. Can you guess which one of us it was?
      Bet you didn’t need genetics for that!

      1. Hi FL, my kids are different colour to me also, their father is Pakistani and very dark skinned. The racism I experienced in that community for 15 years, well they saw me as “white” even though thats only half true. In the Pakistani community they have a derogatory word they use to describe “white”people, so yes I know the feeling. Living around that for years, the way they behaved towards me and my children because they arent full blooded Pakistani well it further leads me to the conclusion that racial differences do exist. Im not talking so much about the racism part though, because racism exists in all communities, but rather, the way people think, the way they treat each other and how they deal with things in general. I lived around this particular race for long enough to notice a lot about them. And no I dont believe its just a result of lack of education or whatever, its their racial characteristics. To this day my children are still seen as somehow defected because their mother isnt “Pakistani’. You cant measure races purely by IQ or education level, its the behaviour, the mentality, the way people think and reason. Being educated is one thing, the way you behave is quite another

        1. Further to my previous comment to FL:
          I would like to add that I am in my mid 40’s. I have only one sibling (a full biological sister, 2 years younger). She seems to hv inherited a lot of the Polynesian (maori) ways of thinking, behaviour and mentality, whereas I have inherited more of my fathers traits in those areas. Even the way we look, she looks more Polynesian, I look more European. My sister is a lot closer to our mother, because well, I put it down to the fact that she has inherited more of the maori genes so she and Mum get on better because of that. Of course I dont hv scientific “proof” of this but honestly, you’d have to have grown up and lived around it to understand what I mean. We grew up in the same house with our biological parents. My sister has also inherited my father’s intelligence and she is successful in business just like our father. I on the other hand, I am the exact opposite, I am not business minded at all (and nor is Mum). I really do admire what my sister she has achieved in her life and wish I could be “smart” like her in that way. Unfortunately though, due to the “maori side of her” (I know it doesnt really sound very nice but its the only way I can describe it) my sister, despite her success in life, she still tends to behave in a way that I consider to be backward. Outwardly she is successful in a financial sense, she can mix with all kinds of people easily, she is amazing in that way, but theres another side to her that maybe only I would notice, being her sister. Its hard to describe but I do notice it in her even now, and I believe its a direct result of the genetic traits she has inherited. How can I get this across without sounding racist? I’m not being racist, its what I have seen and experienced. I have inherited my Mum’s “simple” and non competitive nature and maybe other things I cant think of right now, but overall I pretty much have never been able to hv a relationship with my Mum or my only sister due to the fact that they are how they are (maori and tribal like) which from my observation is definitely linked to genes and race. My sister and I were born in the 70’s in Australia so we have had no real cultural Italian (from north east Italy) or Maori influence around us (only contact with extended family in Australia or on overseas holidays to Italy or NZ) yet these genetic traits from our parents do exist in us. It has impacted on our relationship in terms of the fact that she and I hv never really been close. Its not because we have different personalities, no, its 100% linked to our race(s) and the genes that we inherited from our parents. Genetic differences do come out in mixed race people such as my sister and I, so what better example could you get that not all races are the same? Equal yes as human beings, but in terms of race, some races are more “advanced” or “evolved” than others even when you take into account environmental factors and education level etc. My sister is university educated and runs her own business and yet the “maori tribal like” traits are still there in her and come out in the way she behaves

  48. I have enjoyed reading this article.
    I still believe that Human is the race. Then it is devided into subsections of origen.

    The only difference between us is the preparations made by the body’s ability to adapt to different environments over a few generations. Also social development within a family unit should have a major role in shaping what is known as the so called culture.
    Living in Africa made me see that when people kling to their so called culture, they tend to follow fixed rules and thereby cause themselves to become either corrupt to climb the ladder in becoming known and respected by the people or followers of these nonsense rules causing them to lose track of reality and scene.
    Thus educating these people bound to culture becomes more difficult as they will always refer back to rule no 1. What is the rule of the culture?
    There is never a rule of – investigate the possibility that it makes sense or that it may be found to be true.
    These culture bound people will also believe everything that these cultural leaders say. It will never matter if it makes sense or not.

    Ooooh yes!
    Why is Trump mentioned in your article as a wink wink racist? He has not been outspoken over any so called race. What he was outspoken about, was people promoting racism.
    I personally think that him and his members, have done more good for all people than anyone before.

  49. Do you know how this new “feel good science” came to be? Do you know why no one is opposing views like these? For the same reason officials in China are not opposing the Chinese communist party. Those who tried like James Watson have been silenced and put on their spot.

    No one in the scientific community would dare to question this ideological crusade of making everything scientifically equal, they know their careers would be over if they did that. Real science and truth are rarely this comforting, it is obvious that this is what you get only after suppressing those who disagreed.

    Also, we are more similar than different from chimps as well, we share almost 99% of genes with them. It’s just one percent, so why big fuss about all the differences?

  50. The relationship between race and genetics is relevant to the controversy concerning race classification. In everyday life, many societies classify populations into groups based on phenotypical traits and impressions of probable geographic ancestry and cultural identity—these are the groups usually called “races” in countries like the United States, Brazil, and South Africa.

  51. Anyone who says race is a social construct should be ashamed to be a scientist. There are measurable differences between the races, and those differences developed from natural selection in the region where that race evolved. To ignore this scientific fact is to ignore the truth. To say this is akin to saying there are no dog breeds merely dogs, that all dogs are exactly the same breed and that it’s only a social construct that we think a chihuahua is any different than a bull mastiff…but truly, you would need to be a blind fool to say something so idiotic…

    1. Derek Elliot, you are exactly right. Scientists just make up stories to please everybody rather than report the actual facts. You dont need a study to see that there are differences between races. White people are more intelligent (or whatever you want to call it) overall. I am mixed race (white father, Polynesian mother) and Im sorry people might not want to hear it but its the truth. Im not offended on behalf of myself, my mum or the race I am (being Polynesian), Im just going by my own experiences living around my own family and seeing the differences in how both sides of my family behave, think and deal with things. Mums family they are more tribal, they deal with family issues in a way that white people (Dads family) view as strange, well because for them it is! Its actually a main contributing factor as to why my parents divorced in the end. Too many cultural/racial differences between them. To this day I still hv to listen to one side of the family bagging out the other and yes race always comes into it. Mums family look at Dads family as being “up themselves” and behaving as if theyre better when actually they are just being themselves (not tribal). And sorry but when I compare the two, the white side of my family do behave think and deal with things better. Why? Because obviously as a race they are more evolved

  52. but the white man birth race, racism and racial anthropology into the world…he’s now going back and saying theres no such thing as race…he even put race in the Bible…saying Noah’s 3 sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth are the 3 specific races…Ham negroid, Japheth caucasoid and Shem mongoloid….but then he goes back and change it saying, Shem is caucasoid because Jesus is out of his lineage due to saying Jesus was white…now we have 2 white brothers and one black…guess noah and his wife had son’s of 2 different races since they were white as well…but there is a problem…the Bible dont speak of Asians, hispanics, india indians, middle easterners nor polynesians….i see people are trying to life starting in asia…the first kindoms of asia were black people…i dont agree with race but since we are ear deep in it due to white supremacy, now white folks want to throw loop…if life began in africa by the standards of adam and eve story, they had to be melanated…if life came from 2 melanated people, how did we get the other people….this is where evolution and genetics come in….like cheddar man and Lola 5000 yr old chewing gum….these were black people found in Europe and when DNA analysis was done, they realized they were melanated with blond hair and blue eyes…out of africa theory with melanin last to evolve….dont understand how non melanated people would exist before melanated people…or how non melanated people would’ve derived in equatorial regions….

  53. But by definition having more than 0.10 of black blood you are black yet most of the 23 an me style tests some 1% or more Africa so we all black? Just a thought, or a question sorry I think alot.

  54. Your opening sentence not only defined your bias, but defined the subject of your analysis. I think the tensions began with the previous administration but that may be my bias, and like you I did no research to support my claim. It would have been more clear to make your point with a bit of data to support it, instead of making a one sided opinion. I expect more from a place of higher learning

  55. Disappointing that a Harvard publication is leftis-political yet published as science

    Q: Why are some obsessed with talking down races within humans but not for plants or horses/ dogs/ cats etc which are clearly dpoken positively about races?

  56. The bottom line.
    We as a people have to climb out of our infancy and start protecting our earth instead of our ego’s. We have one earth and when it no longer sustains the very lives you are pondering the DNA of, it is over. It may be that the consequences of our collective actions are irreversible in the quest for power and money.

  57. Your argument is like saying “Brontosaurus was the same as Tyrannosaurus Rex because they were both Dinosaurs.”

  58. The premise to this article is assinine. 296 alleles is still a lot of alleles to distinguish differences. So long as differences exist, some people will use them as a basis for discrimination. Full stop! Nice try, though!

  59. I suppose the big clue in the end is that we can all have children together, and therefore we are the same species. That includes Neanderthals who also come from Africa but a lot earlier.

    Humans categories things in simple ways because they are desperate to find differences. They find partners the same way. “I liked him; he had blue eyes!”

    Culture plays into this. It is not uncommon for a person with black ancestry to want to marry someone with as similar ancestry as possible. Indeed, their parents may insist on it. You find the same divisions with religions; Jewish families insisting their children marry other Jews, for instance. I have seen the same with Indians – Hindus not marrying Muslims. Christians play the same game.

    Back to the eyes, however, I am not sure any parent has insisted on a particular eye colour for their in law. Oh, the Nazi’s might have done.

    You see, everyone seeks to be divisive. It is no surprise that race and racism is a human creation.

  60. Fact. I am human, live in Canada, with a constitution that protects all citizens. Fact, no person is more or less important or worthy to enjoy the rights and privileges guaranteed by my country’s constitution. In my belief system there is no race, religion, culture or economic status that takes precedence and we are richer for our diversity.

  61. The demise of science and academic objectivity and independence is complete; it has been destroyed. Applying contrived interpretations of fact to establish political agendas has prevailed since Galileo and will persist. There are significant differences between species which derive from 1% variations in genetic composition. A Gila monster is not an Iguana even though they share 99% of their DNA. At this very point I can destroy the entire argument made in this article, obviously penned by just another premature hack or hack group looking for funding while claiming to be academic pioneers. What our future looks like in the hands of these malevolent social marxist leaning manipulators is open to speculation. By far the greatest ‘quantity’ of DNA programming in any life form will be consumed by perambulation, articulation, and most significantly by brain functions driving autonomic physical activity all of which are common to greater that 80% of all non-plant life forms so what exactly is being evaluated here appears to be a crude attempt to hypothesize the case of a 1% difference in DNA in a cras move to establish some kind of currently topical political point. It is scientifically evident by now that 1%, after 3000 years of jumping to incorrect conclusions, is all it takes to create a widely dispersed spectrum of variation. Hopefully we have learned some intellectual circumspection in place of bombastic dictates avoiding the repeated folly of our past absolute convictions. I can write a piece of AI assembler code of 500 000 lines and change one instruction and in so doing change the entire behaviour of the executable algorithm. Perhaps your erudite contingent at Harvard should consider the implications of such a simple example. I wager, and will return to you ‘oh illustrious infallible, unquestioned Harvard’ to collect the proceeds of my wager in 5-10 years from now. Here is my wager….. ‘$1 guaranteed you are wrong!’

    1. I’d love to know where you graduated from. I too, place the illusion of intelligence far above the acquisition of actual knowledge, maybe I should look into an education at whatever backwoods spoon bending factory you get your word choice from.

  62. No, it’s not okay to want to live in an all-white nation. Go find yourself an island where you can inbreed. You don’t have the right or the power to define the nation without the consent of everyone else.

    Count me as an American of German ancestry who vehemently disagrees with your goal. I know for sure what side I’m on, and it’s not yours.

    The thing I miss most about the United States is the fabulous diversity of cities like New York.

    I have lived half my life in East Asia, obviously visible as a minority. You (white supremacists) are afraid of living as a minority because you expect to be treated as badly as others have been treated in that situation–perhaps as badly as you have treated others. Yes, when you’re a minority, everything one person of your type does is taken to represent all of your group. One white boy on a break from college who has too many Chinese girlfirends or who gets drunk and makes noise at night becomes a statement about white people in general. I’m not like that, but I sometimes pay a price for it. For example, it makes it harder for me to find a landlord willing to rent to me, despite being an older female professional.

    So man up! Everybody ought to experience being a minority at some point. It’s a good education.

    Everyone is a minority somewhere. Why shouldn’t you experience what so many people experience?

    Having empathy for people like yourself is easy. But there is no natural barrier to empathy. Limiting empathy to people like yourself is a choice–a choice that, in my view, diminishes your humanity and reveals you are, at bottom, weak and afraid.

    I have confidence in my ability to connect with all kinds of people. You should too.

    Not addressing the genetics–I’m with the scientific consensus on that–because the problem is one of attitude.

    America is not a white country and I like it that way.

  63. I’m late to the party but….
    Learn to pronounce
    See definitions in:
    relating to or denoting heritable characteristics controlled by genes which are expressed in offspring only when inherited from both parents.
    undergoing an economic recession.
    “the recessive housing market”
    a recessive trait or gene.

    And if that doesn’t prove superiority ,
    Here’s a Inferiority based *Question* for any person that considers themselves quote on quote ” White ” .. Here Goes : What’s up with the White races Birth Rate. Globally .. ?? I’ll wait

  64. Your first two sentences set the tone for the entire article, and are completely false. The Obama administration sewed the seeds for the racial conflicts we see today. Before Obama, there was little conflict that involved racism, and our country was not divided over race or history.

  65. scientist have been misleading us for years, first they said we evolve from baboon, so called äpes, even if it is not true, but let say it is true, that means white people came from a Black race, because there is never a baboon that is white, that means white people came from us.
    ok here is the real truth
    The real Truth is we all descendent of Adam, Adam was first man that GOD Made, so if Adam was white, a black race would be non-existence, because a white person cannot give birth to a Black person, but a black person can give birth to a Light skinned person, although the Bible does not literally speak much about colour of the skins of people who existed back than but in Genesis 25:25 , Says “Essau came out red all over like hairy garment…” if white was the Normal skin colour, the WORD OF GOD would not have said that, Essau came out red all over like a hairy garment, the Reason The WORD OF GOD Says “Essau was red all over like a hairy garment” it means that a red hairy person or a white skinned person was not a Normal skin of the people who existed back than.

    1. Baboons are not apes, they are cercopith monkeys. The apes are larger and more human-like in build (hence why for centuries the ancient explorers thought they were a race of savage men).

  66. Genesis 25:23

    King James Version

    23 And the LORD said unto her, “Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger.”

    Genesis 25:25-34
    New International Version
    25 The first to come out was red, and his whole body was like a hairy garment; so they named him Esau.

    This proves that White people came from Black people.

  67. I am saddened by so much racist ignorance on this thread.
    I think Harvard should close it for further comments.

    1. This is actually quite funny. When people decide to challenge what has been hit into their heads over and over again. Suddenly discussion must stop by any means. You’re close minded CC Hogan.

  68. What is the definition of insanity? Trying to reason with a racist. Why? Because hate is a product of fear. Feeling threatened by the superior African male physique, men of European ancestry feared rejection by females. Today, as throughout recent history, men of African ancestry are still feared . But this is not about intelligence. No, this is about the most basic of human drives, that of reproduction and species survival. There is no point to reasoning with a racist because this is more basic. It is about penis envy. Men who feel the most threatened are also the most hateful, as is true of most tyrants throughout history.
    So lets stop the b.. s…, and call this what it really is.

  69. Stop using the wrong word, Racism!

    As scientists we know that there is ONE human race! As Homo sapiens we all share the same 99.99% DNA and that only 0.01% makes us unique individuals. What is being referred to as racism is actually bigotry based upon physical characteristics or tribalism based upon country of origin. Please correct your grammar and stop spreading false narratives. According to the original article until it devolved into a political diatribe, would the proper word be ancestralism?

  70. Wow. It’s went from science to an Alt-Right, President Trump Political dog whistle to the Black Hebrew Israelites. Oh I read into that because there wasn’t any mention of their hate speech, or the Melanin theory about whites being mutant subhumans. You might wanna check up on your facts also. Nearly all of those bomb threats, vandalism with swastikas, attacks on minorities were fake/ hoax’s/ lies/ racist trying to stir up racism they weren’t experiencing. However I do recall at least 2 Republican Candidate volunteer offices Being fire bombed. I’m not a member of any Alt-Right groups but if you’re gonna spread lies and hate at least spread the truth about the Far left and their violence.

  71. I wanted to find out information about the true meaning of “race” versus “ethnicity”. I didn’t even bother to read the article. The opening rant against President Trump presented a potential bias in the author’s ( and the publisher’s) ability to discuss subjects without the usual hatred against our current president. I am by no means defending Donald Trump nor admitting that the accusations flying are true. I’m just sick and tired of seeing this distraction before I read something I hoped would be worth my while.

  72. The author uses THEE most Basic LIE seen in Race denial articles.
    The old “99.9%”.
    Which is FALSE.
    The Human Genome Project initially found that number but Craig Venter retested 3 years later and found that the difference was “Seven times as great” and that we were as little as 99% the same.
    So HONEST/informed authors, no longer use that 99.9 LIE
    Wikipedia (Human genetic variation), now uses 99.5% as the avg.

    Of course, with Chimps at 98.6% the same, that leaves Plenty of room for race/subspecies that obviously do exist.
    And there are plenty of other ERRORS and rationalizations.
    Should Ms Chu wish to debate.. make my day.

  73. Chu:
    “”Mounting scientific evidence has shown that humans are fundamentally more similar than different from each other.””
    No , that’s the Old evidence. It’s famously called “Lewontin’s Fallacy.”
    Genetics is finding more definitive differences.

  74. why are there so many crypto-nazis in the comments taking about ‘fake science’… just because you don’t agree with facts and logic doesn’t mean it’s “fake”, it just makes you all look like absolute clowns.

    1. I’m sorry to tell you this Emilio but science isn’t static by any means. The so called “crypto-nazis” are mostly people poking holes in what is obviously a biased article. Race most certainly exists and is the main reason why we see huge differences between “black society” and “white society”. You cannot explain these differences based on socioeconomic factors when that has been disproven long ago. You need to grow Emilio and understand more of the world than merely name call people.

  75. Well judging by the first few comments let’s talk about finding meaning in the wrong place. Life is funny you grow up thinking and watching and picking up on habits from people around you that develops your -personality-
    (etymological origin in Greek word resembling mask. ) well to make your self of significance is an Ego problem and Ego problems exist because there is some form or another of insecurity in that individual and to counteract that evil little flaw we have we create images of ourselves with our imagination to compensate. Now obviously two wrongs don’t make a right if you offend one side they will protect their ego and reciprocate , race is dumb the article states it ,when you stop thinking about yourself and treat others ,no matter who they are ,like you like to be treated to a T thats when these race problems will end quit ruining articles like this with silly laymans babble about white or black your Americans we are the mightiest nation on earth for goodness sakes let’s treat people fairly and people who do things illegally in accordance with the laws and not personal bias .Germany lost the war so identify with being a loser and quit crying about problems your ancestors went through I’d rather be here in a climate controlled house with food on command than live in Africa. BE HERE AND NOW AND GET OUT OF YOUR IMAGINATION. Find meaning in the present.

    1. Yes! Yes! Yes! “God has made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth” (Acts 17:26) The variations within the human genetic code allow for two parents to have 1 x 10 (to the 2348th power) children, which would be visibly different from each other, even though they are essentially 50% Mom and 50% Dad.

    2. I think you mean “species” nor race” [i.e. not 3 (Homo sapiens; Neanderthals; and Denisovans)]
      Race, historically has represent is a subset of humans and in materialistic you cannot have a subset of itself.

  76. It’s insane how much americans are still osessed with “race”. You’re the nation with the most soft power so if the rest of the world goes to shit because it’s influenced by your crazy bullshit racist ideas of society it’s your fault. I suggest you go study cultural anthropology if you want to finally purge racism out of your head.

  77. Imagine reading an article from Harvard and the comments are racist people that are saying things like “white nation”. Who cares.
    Dear racists.. News flash. No one wants to marry into your family. No one wants to live next to you. You are vile. No one cares that you are threatened by education and technology. You are the minority.
    Deny science, deny reality its fine. Sit on social media and be a troll. Lol its doesnt change what’s real. Scream all the names. You can’t hold people of color back and thats what kills you.
    The dream of white supremacy yet your own fear must eat you alive. Its a joke. People of all colors are building more and more strengths from the challenges you try to give. That’s why they appear stronger, because they are. More resilient, because they are, more bold because they are, more educated because they are. Scary times to be a racist. Lol. Call us names, spit your venom lol you still take up so much energy trying to resist what has already happened. We see you and despite you we are thriving. Keep up the challenges it has made us great.

  78. There is no such thing as static race, with modern anthropologists talking about clines and continuously varying morphological gradations. Also dividing humans into Caucasian, Mongliod and Negroid is wrong. There are wide variations in appearance among Africans. We should be talking about Ethnobiological identity, nor race. We have concepts such as sexual selection and social selection, and identitities can change over time. A visit to India will reaffirm that different types of people have got mixed up over millennia. However, the scope for panmixing is usually very small due to social, cultural and geographical factors. A reassessment has already begun, but we will wait for it to take root in popular public consciousness.

    1. Race is a valid classification, but so is ethnicity (which is what you’re talking about.

      That we can get much more specific and in depth doesn’t mean the overall broad categorizations are objectively wrong. An Indian is clearly Caucasian regardless of skin color, for example – but no one would ever confuse a Dravidian with German.

  79. “There is more distance between the races of man than between the moon and the earth” – Ralph Abernathy, Martin Luther King SCLC member

    Even the discoverer of the double helix structure in DNA, James Watson, would agree that the reason why we see big differences in so called “blacks” and “whites” today, is mainly because of ‘nature’ (genes/DNA) rather than ‘nurture’ (society/community/etc.), as some people tried to put it. Yet he was kicked off the scientific board for stating what is basically obvious to begin with. Universities and other scientific communities should be ashamed.

    1. nature is the physical environment. stop looking at skin color- which is environmental (melatonin/skin pigment due to geographical location- everyone knows this, even Harvard). look at the genes- there is more variation within groups that between them. science says so.

  80. I stopped reading when I came to this statement – “In fact, science has yet to find evidence that there are genetic differences in intelligence between populations.”
    The quality of the article is so poor I could not allocate any more of my time resources to reading it.
    For a start, ”science” cannot” find” anything. Science is a process.
    I think you meant “scientists” using the scientific process “has yet to find evidence that there are genetic differences in intelligence between populations.”
    I watched a documentary several years ago which interviewed a scientists from a prestigious American university claiming to have ranked grouping of humans for intellectual potential. – Whether or not in time his work will be validated or discounted, you are just plain wrong to say that “scientists” have not found any evidence thus far.
    Further you’re dealing with the concept of ‘race’ and the concept of ‘ancestry’ displays a lack of intellectual rigour. They are to terms for unrelated entities.
    The term ‘race’ was created as a classification, based entirely upon physical appearance. However, as we now know all physical appearance has as its basis genetics.
    While ‘ancestry’ seeks to explain the evolutionary process of the gene bit
    It’s like preferring to investigate the history of the Industrial Revolution when considering the performance of a Honda Odyssey – One is ‘ancestry’ one is ‘race’
    You state that “…scientists would say that diseases such as sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis are common in those of “sub-Saharan African”… What is the reference to’ sub-Saharan African’ if it is not a descriptor that is commonly tagged by the term “race”.
    It is actually common knowledge amongst a wide field of scientists that there is genetic medicine which identifies particular groups as having a higher propensity to be susceptible to certain events in human health.
    If the identification of a group of people based upon some particular category does not fit within the definition of ‘race’ then there is no practical use for definitions.
    It is true that there is much politics in science and little science in politics but all these scientific evidence at this point indicates that there are groups of humans because of the processes of evolution have particular features which place them in their own particular subgroup, whether it be sports prowess, elevated risk to certain diseases or commonality of physical appearance.
    We have no difficulty at all in acknowledging that people can belong to a “club”, why is it now that we have such great difficulty in saying that people can also belong to a “race”.

    1. Excellent points. Vivian Chou’s opening statement is purely political and immediately undermines the scientific data. She picks and chooses statistics to drive a political agenda. For example, she highlights that 87,000 Muslims were affected by the travel ban. Well, there are 1.5+ billion Muslims and more than 50 Muslim majority countries in the world. Less than 1% of the world’s Muslim population was affected by the travel ban!…. I agree with OzWaz that there is nothing wrong with acknowledging different races. This attempt to erase genetic differences stems from the same ideology that wants to erase gender differences, which completely ignores scientific facts (i.e. chromosomes).
      Ignoring science is not the solution for ending racism or sexism; equal opportunity is .
      Vive la difference!

      1. Hey Daryl… you should turn your pointing finger towards your chest.
        Just because less than 1% of Muslims were affected by the ban doesn’t make it right!!! And please don’t use percentages when referring to your brothers and sisters.
        Of course ´vive la différence ´ , however difference is in the eyes of the beholder… some people Value it, some use it to strengthen their weak identity… strangely though it is white people (scientifically colorless) who persist in equating visible differences with the baseless concept of race…. are you white?… please read the article again…, particularly the part about the 99.9% of DNA we all share…
        Are you forgetting that Race was a concept invented to justify the shipping of 15,000,000 African slaves who built the foundation of the western ´economy ´ ?
        Of course I don’t expect to change your pseudo scientific position… could Trump be your science teacher?
        By the way… I am neither black nor white… and am not wasting time trying to figure out my color… I prefer to enjoy color differences.

        Amicably… seriously!

        1. Extreme Muslimism is not a race or ethnicity, it is a terrible belief out of personal choice. If people choose to believe killing other people is ok, I have no problem to ban them even if they haven’t done anything yet, regardless of their race. This has nothing to do with race.

          1. Any form of religious fundementalism is bad. There is nothing else to it. It doesn’t matter whether the fundementlist is Muslim, Christian or Buddhist. They are enemies of humanity for regarding a fictional character to be more important than actual, physical, living humans that can be materially represented in this world.

  81. The information in this article is deeply flawed and simply supports a particular political philosophy. The fact that different races have different IQ has been well established. The author needs to recognize that an important aspect in support of that fact is the military’s relentless use of IQ tests. From 1992-2004, the military accepted almost no applicants for enlistment who scored below the 30th percentile on the Armed Forces Qualification Test. This eliminated within the ranks the majority of the IQ gap that causes so much discord in civilian America. Enlistees of all races averaged above the national mean in IQ: white recruits scored 107, Hispanics 103, and blacks 102.

    Around the world, the average Intelligence Quotient for East Asians centers around 106; that for Whites, about 100; and that for Blacks, about 85 in the United States and 70 in sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the early research was conducted in the United States, but some was also performed in Canada and the Caribbean (Eysenck, 1984; Jensen, 1973; Osborne & McGurk, 1982; Flynn, 1980; Kamin,1974; Lewontin, Rose, & Kamin, 1984).

    Racial-group differences in IQ appear early. For example, the Black and the White 3-year-old children in the standardization sample of the Stanford–Binet IV show a 1 standard deviation mean difference after being matched on gender, birth order, and maternal education (Peoples, Fagan, & Drotar, 1995).

    Black and White 2 1⁄2- to 6-year-old children in the U.S. standardization sample of the Differential Aptitude Scale have a 1 standard deviation mean difference. No data are available for East Asian children at the youngest ages. On the Differential Aptitude Battery, by age 6, however, the average IQ of East Asian children is 107, compared with 103 for White children and 89 for Black children (Lynn, 1996). The size of the average Black–White difference does not change significantly over the developmental period from 3 years of age and beyond (see Jensen, 1998b).

    The fact that the heritability of IQ is between 0.50 and 0.80 does not mean that individual differences are fixed and permanent. It does tell us that some individuals are genetically predisposed to be more teachable, more trainable, and more capable of changing than others, under current conditions (Jensen, 1998; Miele, 2002)

  82. When cold hard facts are observed, some people become discouraged or even insulted, by the existence of these facts.

    When I was a child, I came to realize that some people were faster than me in a foot race. Some people could throw a ball farther, some could play an instrument or sing like a bird, and some people could solve a puzzle more quickly.

    I did not attribute this to luck. I realized that their ability was SUPERIOR to mine in those regards. This did not destroy my sense of self. I accepted the inevitability that there will always be, “greater and lesser persons than myself”, as so wisely penned in the lovely prose “Desiderata”. c.1692.

    The black race, as it exists in Africa, and long before there was such a thing as an “African-American”, is deeply aware of these names and their contributions:
    Aristotle, Socrates…Julius Caesar…Leif Erikson, Copernicus, Galileo, Leonardo da Vinci, William Shakespeare, Johannes Gutenberg, Chopin, Beethoven, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, Eli Whitney, Louis Braille, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla, Henry Ford, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Dr Jonas Salk, …..,heck-Bill Gates and Steve Jobs. Of course I could go on—

    I guess it’s fairly evident what all these people have in common, whether philosophy or engineering, banking (invented by Romans) and architecture, math and science, art and literature , finance and technology—-(And I deliberately left out politics and military )– – from the beginning of “civilization”, white people have made a ‘superior ’ impact.

    Of course, there are exceptional black musicians and athletes, inventors and poets, educators and scientists…most of whom we are acquainted with from rather recent history. But in overall numbers, the evidence is clear.

    Why does that have to be so painful?
    As children we accept that some of our playmates have SUPERIOR skills!
    Get over it!
    It is merely the luck of the draw.

    Now, can one exert extra effort and conceivably outpace the competition? Of course!

    Many people have struggled, and overcame, came from behind, and emerged victorious over those equipped with better native abilities.

    Like it or not, it becomes eminently clear EVEN to all children, that we were NOT created equal—however “politically incorrect ” to modern sensibilities—in our physical beauty, nor our physical prowess, nor our health, nor our abilities to think and problem-solve.
    Yes, Virginia, there are disparities in our proclivity to lead, and to succeed, by whatever societal standards are in play in its own era.

    We all need to do our best.
    We all need to aspire to excellence.
    We all need to be treated with respect, care, generosity and kindness.

    But it is about time that we grew up, and acknowledged that the concept of superiority EXISTS in the animal kingdom. So what?
    Let’s all benefit by encouraging the best of us to guide us gently into the future.

    Let the Asian neurosurgeon operate on my brain.
    Let the Caucasian lawyer defend me in court.
    Let the Jewish guy handle my investments.
    Let the African American score my movie.
    And so forth…

    Let us all benefit from the unique superiority that one person, one race, has relative to the other.

    Superiority is not a four-letter word.

    1. I do agree, different people have different talents. Naturally so, but this fact still doesn’t make anyone “superior”. The notion of superiority by itself suggests that one is in all areas greater than the other, which is never the case. Eistein might be several times more intelligence than me, but I definitely lived my life with less regrets. Although in all honesty, he is being too harsh on himself for the atomic bomb. Objectively speaking that was never his fault.

      Anyways, my point being that you should have been more specific.
      “Let us all benefit from the unique superiority that one person, one race, has relative to the other (in different areas*).”
      I do see this idea present in your argument, however, the conclusion was greatly misleading, which can really undermine the the message you want to convey.

    2. It depends. For most of history the center of civilization was China, and it was the Middle East that invented civilization to begin with.

      At a time when most of the world hadn’t discovered bronze, massive empires in what is now Iraq and Syria built great palaces, founded the first libraries and provided the foundation for the world to come (including the two dominant religions).

      Said empires could be very brutal conquerors, but it was the price to pay.

  83. striking away politics and past understandings; the science is this -99.9 % common coding shared by all humans. there is 1 race -the human race. color shade of skin, hair texture, eye shapes do not identify and define race. allow science and data instruct. stop the silliness.

  84. Hello, I enjoy reading all of your article post. I wanted to write a little comment to support you.

  85. This author injects her liberal bias into the article by interjecting “Trump” and “alt-right” into discussions of racism, with no mention what-so-ever about radical LEFTIST views, prejudices, and behaviors that have actually propelled national stories of “racism” and racist events over the past 2 years. The old guard of racist Democrats, Jim Crow, and KKK who were outwardly objecting to equality, have now retreated into the dark corners of the media and academia, nonetheless just as destructive and angry and violent as ever before. But, hey, this author is not peddling truth; she’s mongering fear.

    1. Yesterday’s Democrats were conservative and yesterday’s Republicans were liberal. Today’s Democrats are liberal and today’s Republicans are conservative. The basis stays the same…..liberals are forward thinking and contribute to human evolution. Conservatives are restrictive and contribute to narcissism/sociopathy and stunt evolution!

  86. When are we going to learn to stop viewing events of the past through today’s standards? Science tells us that all human beings are the same race when we are identified through our DNA. Much of ancient history is unwritten. Anthropological evidence indicates that all humans migrated from Mesopotamia (the cradle of civilization) to the other continents. It’s clearly indicated as well that the topography/geography and climate of the regions those early humans migrated to led to changes in the pigment of our skin, the size and shape of our facial features. The rest has remained the same. We have two arms, two legs, a brain to reason with, etc. We are all the same in our need for food, water, air, shelter, and clothing for our bodies, and love, truth, and beauty are needed for our inner person(s) to continue to grow, develop and (hopefully) become more civilized. We have all become more aware in the last few centuries how important the standards of human freedom and mutual respect for each other in our individual and collective relationships with one another are. How does it help us to continue to point out other’s mistakes? We could be ‘taking full responsibility’ for this mess we have inherited and both envision and actualize a positive change. Are we doing that? It does not seem to be occurring on a regular basis. Let us resolve to look at ourselves as individuals and correct our ineffective behavior, stop attacking one another with guns and words of hate, and move towards a world where we all help take care of one another and the planet. We need each other’s cooperation to accomplish this.

  87. Like it or not, the earth is populated by different races, who share discernible physical differentiations, from eye, hair, and skin color, to shape of eyes, nose, and lips, as well as hair texture, musculature, and average height.

    And there are more subtle differentiations, which will steer clear of lest I be accused of elitism.

    Shouting from the highest hilltops that we are all the same is a waste of breath.

    We have differences which we may as well acknowledge and adapt to.

    Of course, there are exceptions, and a spectrum across which the differentiations may be less distinct. Nevertheless, it is generally easy to distinguish between an Asian and a black African; between a Caucasian and an Incan-descended indigenous.

    If it is only human nature to prefer the familiar, and adhere to one’s own race, then perhaps racism is inevitable.

    Racism, however, robs us of the beauty, adventure, and enhancement of the benefits of diversity. The very best defense to racism, is to demonstrate exceptionalism and superiority in attributes that are commonly revered across cultures—-Be magnificent, and you will be respected and accepted.

    Quit Sulking.

    1. Use this same reasoning for people within the same family….both nuclear and extended families and you’ll see just how flawed your argument is.

      It’s clear people, mainly Americans, know nothing about science except “race”.

  88. I certainly thank you for writing this article well, hopefully it will become a reference in journals or other scientific writings and can help many people. thanks.

  89. this is going to sound messed up but if we look at humans as we do other species, and we can agree that life started in africa. then would it also be safe to say that evolution/adaptation which took place elsewhere has created differences to people living outside of africa. not making them different species, per se, but different enough to warrant a classification?
    i also don’t want to make the assumption that like other species which leave and adapt that they are somehow superior to the original which hasn’t changed over time as it has remained in the same environment with less opportunity to reproduce outside of a closed genetic system.
    Instead, as environmental hazards become less of a factor as people live indoors and spend less time exposed to the elements, i would be interested to see which traits become valued, because i don’t think our brains have adapted as much as we may think. females still seek out antiquated traits in partners, and males have been forced to retain these traits which may or may not be valuable today. it’s interesting to see how intelligent animals devolved when it comes to love.

  90. Humans and rats share 97% same DNA. Obviously, people will have more in common with each other than they do with rats. That doesn’t negate the differences! That simply means that the tiniest difference counts. And quite likely, science is not as advanced as it likes to think it is. Humans are not God. We do not know it all.

  91. First and foremost, race is distinguishable by morphology, without color.
    For example, view the silhouette profile / side-view outlines of human faces.
    The vast majority of faces are distinguishable as to racial / historical-geogrophical-regional-genetic-group type. Yes, there’s been a fair amount of interbreeding as well, and, the morphological characteristics are discernable as to which ancestral-racial type(s) are the most prominent in ones morphological-characteristics.

  92. Great article. There is still something I do not understand:
    If people of two different (visual) “races” indeed have more in common genetically than other members of their own “race”, then how are the genetic tests able to discern their ancestry? Or is the implication that those two have a more similar ancestry although they are of different “races”? Are there key genes used to determine geographic origin or is it overall homology to an archetypal ancestor?
    Thank you.

  93. “people of two different (visual) “races”indeed have more in common genetically than other members of their own “race””. Forget that and drop the quotation mark for ‘races’. The idea is absurd and will not stand under rational scrutiny. Race is real – it is in nearly all all other species so why wouldn’t it be in humans. What most people perceive of as race in America is skin color – but why wouldn’t evolution apply to everything under the skin as well?.. In fact it does from the bones to the brain, the blood and the guts (and what’s in the guts too). The Japanese don’t have yellow skin if you google Japanese crowds you see that their skin looks the same as Europeans and yet their skin color evolved by a different process involving different genes that evolved by convergent evolution to effect the same advantage of pale skin in higher latitudes. Look to the real science of biology and forget the misled agenda-driven ‘pseudo-social sciences’.
    Homology – yes. Archetypal ancestor? A bit like alchemy – interesting but never worked.

  94. Thanks to rassology, Germany is not dying out like Russia. and do not bear the yoke% 27 per annum

  95. Hello,

    Can someone please kindly point me to the original source of the Kim vs Venture vs Watson genetic experiment?

    Thank you.

  96. I have been searching for answers why the five races are not mentioned in anthropology today. This thread really shows why. It seems to me that Coon was correct for the most part and that our treatment of different races in our past and present has caused a this body of science to be highly skewed from knee jerk reactions to racism. Coon may have worked with others that had white supremist leanings but he was clear about the error of using the description of negroid and instead congoid and capoid as being correct. It’s sad that people today cannot celebrate the diversity of the African linages because of anti racism overreacting

  97. “In the biological and social sciences, the consensus is clear: race is a social construct, not a biological attribute.”

    in medicine, failing to note the biological difference between different groups based on ancestry/race can lead to errors. ‘race defined as a social construct’ ignores the biological differences that accompany a genetically constructed ‘ancestry’ .

    regarding ‘ancestry’; “unlike the term “race,” it focuses on understanding how a person’s history unfolded, not how they fit into one category and not another.”

    this premise appears shaky. i’ve seen ‘race’ used often to describe the chain of parentage exactly like ancestry does. a person with ashkenazi ancestry fits into the ashkenazi category. ‘race’ is used to mean ‘group ancestry’.

    “Even if most scientists reject the concept of “race” as a biological concept, race exists, undeniably, as a social and political concept.”

    and also as a biological concept, but referred to as you stated previously, ‘ancestry’.

    “we as a species have been estimated to share 99.9% of our DNA with each other. ” and 98.8% with chimpanzees, a different species. amazing how much difference a few genes can make.

    the question is not whether there are identifiable sub-groups of humans biologically; you’ve stated that, but call these ancestral rather than racial differences, due to the ugly history of racism. we resort to ‘cultural differences’ to explain the diversity of human beings, but don’t know the relationship between our biology and our cultures enough to make such a statement. it may well be that homo sapiens has exactly the capacities and capabilities of other humans such as homo sapiens/neanderthalis, or /denisova, or /neanderthalis/denisovan, or other hybrids, but this has yet to be quantified.

    it begs belief that we as humans would evolve without some differences in populations separated geographically over long times. how large a difference would it take for one group to outperform another on some metric? if we’re 1% away from chimpanzees, perhaps a tiny amount.

  98. What makes 1 race think there better or smarter than any other.
    We all came into this world 🌍 the same way
    Through a womans legs. Unless you came here on a space ship ,spare me the BS.
    You know what’s goin on in this world with black people, everyone who’s going along with this white race crap is writing a check that will get cashed sooner than you think.

  99. As usual the science has been removed to serve personal manipulation .
    The cacophonous statements and allegations taint truth which is that a Race is an event, not a human classification.
    Hate, envy and lies are human characteristics recorded throughout history.
    Skin tone, hair, and all human features were developed through the environment that people group lived in a; and became the predominate genetics of that people group.
    The fact that various bacteria, virus, and chemicals react differently in various people groups demonstrates the genetic variances between the various people groups.
    As “one nation under God” we are either Americans or we are not.
    Segregation and discrimination have been deemed unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court; yet americans continue to insist on and assert segregation and discrimination is their right, and separation of the Nation through creation of sub cultures: hyphenation/separation -American(s) continue.
    People leave or flee one nation or environment for ‘greener pastures’ but cling tightly to that which they have left; yet they reject the enjoyment of a new life through refusals to grow into a new community as a equal and productive member. Equality is equal or it’s a lie regardless of genetics. STOP the propaganda and get on with Life.

  100. I think its logically correct to say there’s no human who is white. We have
    variations of black, dark brown, brown, light brown, and pink ( or simply pigskin ). As to genetics, the evidence will always be there to even if only one human remained alive after an apocalypse. Fighting it is self defeated and an attempt to make one feel good about themselves, nothing more.

  101. This does not square with current forensics as I see it. If a body is discovered, forensics can tell us if the person is white, black or asian. How is this possible if this cannot be determined by genetics. Clearly I misunderstand the article or how forensics can determine race??

  102. Thank you for sharing such a piece of helpful information with us! But I disagree! We aren’t more alike than we are different. We are genetically the same, and there are no distinct races. Skin color has no bearing. It’s just more noticeable than other slight variations.

  103. Just a few questions:

    1) Didn’t humanity achieve unparalleled technological breakthroughs around the same period intermixing with neanderthals began?

    2) why was it always the case when comparing hominds that the larger the brain the more intelligent it was believed to be yet when it comes to neanderthals an exception is made?

    3) Didn’t the “cro-magnons” that mixed with neanderthals out of Africa go through a sudden increase in brain size?

    4) why did the first complex civilizations begin in the same area the earliest interbreeding with neanderthals occured?

    I hope you can clarify this for me. Thank you

  104. Spent a couple of hours reading through all your thoughts of race ,but it’s not about any of that. It’s about money! The haves and the have nots the ones that contribute and those who refuse to contribute. Exploitation thrives everywhere around the world. Even people that think there rich are being exploited, they think they own their home’s cars ect. But they pay rates on their home’s rego on their cars the list goes on. Racism, political jargon, smoke and mirrors. As long as we have governments that persist in keeping the poor, poor putting barriers between us we will always have the discussion of racism
    Oh and the Eve gene, Adam and Eve first two right, they had Kane and Able, Kane kills Able, Kane says to God
    ‘don’t kick me out everyone will kill me,’
    God kicks him out and he finds cities filled with people, he even goes on to have a family of his own. Eve gene ,got to go further back than that.

  105. I think the main issue is not really where our origins lie, even our ancestry, seriously everyone on Earth has a massive array of ancestors, most of which I doubt we can confidently connect due to writing & record keeping ability the further back we go.

    But the focus on what makes us Human.

    Adam and Eve, Manu, Noah, whoever from some religious text are not rooted in Science and has no place in Science, it only has a place in Fantasy & Myth. Religions are not factual, most of the earliest writing of The Christian Bible is heavily distorted by time, decay, mistranslations, tact on lies, disagreement of witnesses, and changes due to shifting of Appropriate times.

    It doesn’t matter WHERE we originated, our skin color absolutely doesn’t matter. We can be RACIALLY different, but we are NOT different as members of a SPECIES.
    It is not “The Human Race”, it is in fact “The Human Species”. Where we are born and who we are born from will affect out nationality, culture, and typically our Race. But if a Black Man impregnates a White Woman, a Black Baby typically comes out, not always, sometimes there is a mixing of skin color. But BOTH Parents are HUMAN. You can’t deny that.

    There are definitely races of people. But we are more defined by our Culture, our Nation, our Society, Those who raise us, the friends we make, and the enemies we develop. No matter our Race is, WE ARE ALL STILL HUMAN. And Nothing will change that.

  106. The definitions of Race should be removed from language. I believe that there is 1 race the Human race (Homo Sapiens), yes I know that is the species. Different races is a stupid idea, that is now scientifically proven to be illogical. Might as well just differentiate by breeds of humans. All human babies smile, all of our blood is red, yes based on ancestry there are certain regionally likely differences, but as science has shown us there is far less than 1% difference between humans with different ancestry. Humans are logical in that we categorize similar things and then assign a value to them. All American bills are green, there is a common perceived / assigned value by the denomination on them. Racially separating people is similar they are given a social value based on physical signs of ancestry.
    Everyone like to be right, a lot of people need to feel better about their assigned class / status. Like bullies in school they pick on people weaker or perceived to be lesser than them, as they don’t want to be lesser, or have their societal / personal value lessened they want to keep everyone else in their perceived value position. As this is belief back perception reinforced by social status, it is very difficult to have people admit they are wrong, because that might lessen their status, as well as make them wrong.

    At the end of the day to me people judging people are just assholes, don’t be an asshole. It’s not like any human is perfect, and unfortunately the assholes who do this will never change as this is learned and socially reinforced behavior. The belief that they are better and everyone who is different or doesn’t agree with them is wrong and beneath them for will not change as they can always find people to echo them and support them with the internet, I don’t think this problem is going away for several generations.

  107. Surely you Harvard educated folks arent saying advantageous alleles like a higher intelligence didn’t occurr foremost in homosapiens?

  108. Humans can’t handle reality, there is a small difference between humans who evolved in different parts of the world. DNA/genes makes our skin color different just like the same type of animals are different in other parts world that evolved a little different, why don’t all humans have high intelligence like Einstein? Science is trying be political correct, racism is just stupid and it’s a humanity issue, whites didn’t invent racism, it’s been around since the first humans. No skin color is superior to others, lots humans are just more intelligent than others regardless of skin color. But we shouldn’t ever twist science to protect feelings, we are always going have ignorant people from all skin colors.

    1. Precisely! Changing reality or definitions of things to support political correctiness is a slippery slope.

    2. The problem is trying to quantify and qualify intelligence and narrow intelligence down to one specific area. That my dear is narcissism/sociopathy/psychopathy!

      People can be spatially intelligent, socially intelligent, emotionally intelligent, musically intelligent, verbally intelligent, physically intelligent etc.

      Certain humans place an emphasis on spatial intelligence and this is problematic. You see, evolution balances everything out to ensure narcissists can’t succeed in elevating themselves above others who are intelligent in other equally important areas.

      The type of intelligence Americans erroneously value comes with a heavy price because people with this type of intelligence also posses narcissistic/sociopathic/psychopathic traits which is destructive to humanity, animals and the planet.

      A balance is always needed just as the elements of earth, wind, fire and water all balance each other out and need each other. If one element attempts to elevate itself among the other elements or fights the other elements, destruction ensures. That’s why you have tornados, hurricanes, volcanos, storms, earthquakes etc. Tribal people around the world have been telling us this for centuries but narcissists with their splendid, fragile overinflated egos wouldn’t listen. And now destruction is rampant, even in families!

      Humans really need to be careful of their narcissistic tendencies to overcompensate for poor nurturing in childhood!

      You mentioned Einstein who had known narcissistic/sociopathic/psychopathic traits. That’s nothing to brag about!

  109. Nowadays this condition is getting very well known across online platforms. i personally know close friends and family members who are having narcissistic traits and after reading many articles about this condition in people i trully understood that this is a real treat when interacting with these type of people. Even if members of familly are having narcissistic traits, we have to learn how to cope with them and their condition. thank you for writting this article.

  110. I’m not sure how the authors legitimize ‘ancestry’ as a valid concept, but attack race as an illegitimate one. The vagueness of ancestry is far greater than the vagueness of race, under the original Blumenbach conception. And referring to “geography”, ancestry is far more misleading than race. At least race, describes some real genetic and historical connectections between different people. True, there is no fine lines to define races, but the amount of construct is very small, compared to the amount of reality.

  111. I have read all the comments, some brilliant, some ignorant and some plain old racist.

    We are called the HUMAN RACE. Not the black race, white or anything else but HUMAN.

    The only thing that has to do with Color is the RED of OUR 🩸 blood. Why don’t we focus on what makes US HUMAN.

  112. An incredibly political and biased article, I just wanted to add that it still makes me laugh that in 2022 people genuinely, honestly believe in Lewontin’s bad and disproven “science” (it’s called Lewontin’s Fallacy for a reason) that because there’s more variation within races, there can’t be such a thing as race.

    Quick question: If we share 98.8% of our dna with chimpanzees, how big of a difference do you think a 0.1% variation in dna makes? The answer is obvious, a really, really big difference.

    If there’s a variation of 0.0001% between races, that could still affect everything from hormone levels to intelligence to muscle development.

    Remember kids, just because the rainbow exists doesn’t mean the sky isn’t blue. A creationist doesn’t believe in evolution, a leftist believes evolution didn’t change anything other than skin color. Both are morons.

  113. White People didn’t come on the earth until 1 million years later after creation ( Adam and Eve ) they were born from a black man as Esau .

  114. That you start the study with prejudice against the President reveals the results of this study as political hyperbole. That there are no I Q differences between the races defies scientific measurements and biases the study.

    That mankind originated in Africa is nothing more than a guess. The discovery of Lucy as the mother of all is sheer crazinesses. An ape skull was found wherein human DNA was added to her missing DNA to make her more human.

    Any fool can see significant differences between the races and every social organization on Earth celebrates those diverse characteristics.

    That whiteness comes from darkness is nothing more than hypothesis, which the writer lacks to mention.

    DNA defines our complete identity, not just color but features that can be measured precisely.

    That Down’s Syndrome people have a common appearance and are a specific genetic mutation, not environmental, is evidence that gene mutation occurs to change the appearance of people with common DNA.

    The study should not dismiss genetic mutation as a cause of racial differences but study the causes of genetic mutation.

    Were the biblical curses some mutation? The peoples of the curses indicate that mutations did occur and that those cursed dispersed as like peoples prefer to experience life together whereas it is natural for unlike people to migrate from those with whom they differ.

    Why do they not call hypotheses what they are – guesses based on bias, poor methodology, and data manipulation.

    Science automatically dismisses Providence because by definition science does that. Because divine intervention is neglected does not make it non-existent.

    1. The idea of Africa being the origin of humanity did not stem only from Lucy the ape-man. It also stemmed from the oldest known modern human remains being found on that continent (Irhoud 1 being 300,000 years old and the Omo-Kibish and Florisbad humans being over 200,000 years old).

      There was also a controversial genetic study that placed modern day Ghana as the birthplace of modern man, but that one is now heavily disputed and largely viewed with skepticism.

  115. It’s clear you want to arm readers with knowledge to fight ignorance judging the composite of this article. My type of people are O Positive. We are peaceful and friendly. We O positive people need you all to not hurt us. You are dumb for hurting each other. Lesson finished.

  116. I recently told a mixed race friend that I see no reason why different groups of humans living in different environments could not have evolved differently over tens of thousands of year. Polar bears, as a species, are thought to only be about 12,000 years old, for example. That is WAY shorter than the last time a tribe of humans migrated out of Africa. James Watson was a victim of “Cancel Culture” when he (correctly) stated that there might be differences between blacks and whites. Of course, the problem is that anywhere but Sub-Saharan Africa, most “blacks” are a mixture of races. But seriously, if you believe in evolution, I don’t see how you can say that Sub-Saharan Africans MUST be on par with all the other races. That’s just NOT how it works! They have evolved, yes, but maybe in different ways. I read recently that black people were better at certain things when it came to the military, and I even saw a PBS documentary a few years ago claiming that chipmanzees were better at short term memory than the average human! I wish I had somebody to talk to about this in a rational manner instead of just shrieking “RACIST!!!!!” (Also? Read the news, duh!!!)

  117. I cannot believe Harvard of all places has allowed an article like this to exist. By reading the first sentence and looking at the opening images it is obviously biased. This is another example of race privilege and using that to spread a biased opinion is dangerous, how do you think stereotypes began in the first place? Data without the bias is fine it can be reviewed and scrutinized scientifically but once you add the bias all credibility is lost, then it just becomes another piece of rhetoric by an activist. For an institution like harvard to support this kind of article shows harvard cares more about being politically correct, no not even pc but politically pandering, then scientifically correct. In the end it appears as an attack.

  118. The author is a shallow, woke propagandist not a scientist. She fails to discuss rampant Asian, black, and Middle Eastern racism. Like most racist simpletons, she downplays racism and bigotry by Asian, blacks, and people of color in general, while shrieking about white people.

  119. Why doesn’t this article as well as those it referenced correct their facts to tell the truth about the Israeli boy named Michael Kadar and his dark-web profitable business of calling in nearly 1,000 bomb threats to jewish centers throughout the usa during 2017?
    Kadar did Bomb threats to order via the dark-web.

  120. What would you say is Liam Neeson’s race?

    I ask this question because in this era of the gene, of people swabbing their cheeks to know where their ancestors came from, and of racism glazed over with the shiny patina of science, many people feel confused about race. They have heard that it’s a social construct, but that can be hard to square with rumours that only Black people have sickle cell anemia. And if 23andMe can report on your ancestry, isn’t that proof that race exists at the biological level?

    The concept of dividing humans into categories has been with us for a very long time. Greek philosopher Aristotle attempted to classify living things in a hierarchy. According to his thinking, some humans were born to be kings, whereas others were determined to be slaves. In the 1700s, Man was divided into a handful of races: Africans, Asians, Native Americans, and Caucasians (Pacific Islanders were thought of as a fifth race by some). It wasn’t just a horizontal classification, but a vertical one too. Thinking of Africans as biologically inferior to Caucasians certainly facilitated their treatment during the slave trade.

    When participants to a focus group in 2004 were asked what exactly is a race, they ended up mirroring a debate that had been happening among scholars, because it’s not an easy concept to define. Physical appearance, especially skin colour, was often mentioned by the participants, but it wasn’t seen as sufficient. If we stop at skin colour, however—a common enough shortcut for anyone trying to categorize an individual by race—we quickly run into a problem:

    Women of different races

    Figure 1. Four women illustrating physical variation

    (from Hubbard, 2017)

    To what races do these women belong? It turns out they are all from the African continent. From left to right, we have a Namibian, an Egyptian, a Malian, and a Kenyan. If “African” is one race, why do all these women look so different?

    A useful definition of a race is a group of people who are perceived as sharing biological features. Importantly, this perception varies by culture, because this is not, please excuse the pun, a black-and-white ruling. If skin colour is used to distinguish race, where is the cut-off? It’s not obvious, because skin colour is on a gradient.

    But skin colour, hair colour, eye colour, and other physical traits are all under the control of genes, so doesn’t our DNA have something to do with race?

    Our eyes tell us lies that DNA can pulverize

    The DNA in our cells is littered with variants, little changes from one individual to the next that are responsible for many of our physical attributes and our predispositions to disease. It’s like we all have the same book, except that my edition has a few typos and local spelling differences that yours doesn’t and vice versa (e.g. “color” versus “colour”). When we add up all of these variants, that is what we mean by “genetic variability”, the number of DNA differences from one person to another.

    So do you think there is more genetic variability between these two penguins… or between Taylor Swift and Kanye West?

    A photo of a penguin, Taylor Swift and Kanye West
    Figure 2. Genetic variation in humans versus penguins

    (from Hubbard, 2017)

    The answer is surprising. Even though our eyes tell us one thing, DNA analysis reveals the opposite. These penguins are more different at the DNA level than our two human superstars. It turns out that humans are less genetically diverse than many animals, including chimps.

    In fact any two unrelated human beings on the planet are 99.9% identical in their DNA sequence. Only 0.1% varies, and here’s the most important takeaway message from all this. It also happens to be the most replicated finding in the scientific literature on human variation.

    Of this 0.1% that varies, almost all of it (95.7% to be exact) is found between individuals within the same race. Despite what our eyes perceive, there is more genetic diversity within a race than between races

    If you didn’t know that, don’t worry: you’re in good company. Three out of four college students taking an introductory course in biology and genetics also do not know this.

    And since skull sizes are being discussed again in certain corners of the Internet, 90% of the variability in their volume also occurs within (and not between) human groups.

    This is a big snag in the argument that race is a biological reality. This finding—that there’s more diversity within than between groups—is true for most physical traits, with one prominent exception: skin colour. Why? Because skin colour is under tremendous selective pressure. It varies depending on how far from the equator we are, because a darker skin offers better protection against sunburn, skin cancer and related damages. People with naturally darker skin were better adapted to their environment and were more likely