Large mammalian brains are composed of cells that are highly susceptible to oxygen deprivation. Consequently, it has long been believed that, once blood flow (and oxygen delivery) has stopped for several minutes, an irreversible chain of events within the brain has been set in motion. These events ultimately lead to complete degradation of the tissue. However, the development of a new brain-fluid pumping system by researchers at the Yale School of Medicine challenges this idea. This experiment suggests that proper restoration of circulation even hours after death can restore several interesting cellular functions and preserve brain architecture, moving one step closer toward complete restoration of neurological function. Even without this complete restoration, preserving or restoring cellular function after death is useful in that it may allow biologists to study the functionality of cells in an environment similar to living organisms without some of the difficulties associated with live animal work. For example, isolated brains are far more accessible to study the effects of drugs once the influence of other organ systems is removed. Also, the ethical considerations associated with live animal work are substantially reduced so long as consciousness is not restored.

The scientists developed a pumping system which mimics normal blood flow patterns of the circulatory system and a pumping fluid that delivers oxygen and mimics the properties of blood but without any cells . This system was connected to the carotid arteries (which provide the brain’s main blood supply) in the brains of pigs. The experimental group of brains were connected to the system four hours after death and pumping was maintained for six hours. Three other groups of brains served as controls: one group was pumped with a control fluid, another was prepared in the same way as the perfused samples but not connected to the pumping system, and the last was not processed in any way, but measurements were still taken at the same 10-hour post-mortem time point.  Aspects of tissue preservation and functionality, such as large-scale circulation and the architecture,  shape, and functionality of major types of cells, were assessed. The pumping system could not restore global electrical activity, which is associated with consciousness, perception, and large-scale brain functionality. However, it did succeed in reducing the degradation of tissue architecture and the death of cells in important regions of the brain. This preserved the responsiveness of the blood vessels and cells to drugs, and even maintained the ability of neurons to respond to electrical input!

These results do not, by any means, suggest that  fully reanimating a dead brain will be accomplished using this system or will be seen in the near future. It may be possible that by changing the chemistry of the pumping fluid, a state even closer to that of a functioning brain may be observed. But the lack of global electrical activity, a hallmark of any living brain state, highlights the pronounced difference between the current capabilities of this system and a functioning brain. Even so, these results do suggest that mammalian brains possess a previously unrealized potential for restoration of activity several hours after death and underscore the importance of considering what a potential restoration of global brain activity could mean for neuroscience, medicine, and life as a whole. Though it is still too early to claim that these results call into question the current distinction between life and death, one cannot help but wonder if similar interventions in the coming years could suggest that death may not be so final after all! In considering such a possibility, it will be essential for neuroscientists, engineers, doctors, and lawmakers to carefully evaluate the ethical implications well in advance.

 

Managing Correspondent: Andrew T. Sullivan

Press Articles: Scientists restore some functions in a pig’s brain hours after death, Science Daily

Researchers restore some function to brains of dead pigs, raising potential for human applications, CNN

Calm down, everyone. Keeping dead pig cells alive is not ‘brain resuscitation,’ Los Angeles Times

Brain Restoration System Explores Hazy Territory between Being Dead or Alive, Scientific American

Original Journal Article: Restoration of brain circulation and cellular functions hours post-mortem,” Nature

Image Credit: Pixabay

4 thoughts on “Pigs & Immortality: A Step Towards Reversing Death

  1. Thank you Andrew for this great article, Reversing Death is a topic that we are working on right now, we are producing a film that talks about this topic in the context of religious teaching and what does it mean for humanity if these predictions turn to be a part of normal people lives, the ethical implications of this discovery is extremely difficult to asses for sure. thank you for the information it will indeed aid our research. Fascinating information,

  2. Wow, those closing sentences, what wonderful flights of science fiction. Rather removed from the study and the accomplishments, don’t you think? Take a close look at that study – there was nothing in there about bringing life back from the dead – biological functions were restored to some braincells, thanks to heroic efforts – that was suspended deterioration for a precious few short-lived hours – not any reversal of death.

    https://www.nature.com/magazine-assets/d41586-019-01216-4/d41586-019-01216-4_16665188.mpga
    4:30: “At the cellular level these brains are very close to being alive. But if we consider life of the brain as the expression of the functionality of the brain, then they are very, very far from being alive.” —

    Seems to me this study has more to tell us about evolution than about the human dream of immortality. Provide a proper environment and if prepared Life strives to happen.

    At best this was the slowing of the death process of an organ – an incredible milestone with much to teach and help various other fields of science – but reversing death?

    The Human Mindscape is capable of imagining way more than physical reality will allow.

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